entering the world of deaf survivors by julie rems smario ms ma n.
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Entering the World of Deaf Survivors by Julie Rems-Smario, MS, MA. Deaf Community Deaf community see itself as a language and culture minority group. Deaf culture is learned in Deaf schools and Deaf clubs 90 percent of Deaf people are born to hearing parents

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deaf community deaf community see itself as a language and culture minority group
Deaf CommunityDeaf community see itself as a language and culture minority group
  • Deaf culture is learned in Deaf schools and Deaf clubs
  • 90 percent of Deaf people are born to hearing parents
  • 10 percent of Deaf people learn their culture from their family
slide3
DEAF CULTURE & VALUES

Strongly influenced by ASL

Language and culture minority

Deaf schools & Deaf clubs

Deaf of Deaf (10 percent)Resistance to medical modelResists Alexander Graham Bell’s influence

CollectivismDeafhood

american sign language
ASL is visual-gestural languageIts own syntax and grammarThree dimensional languageNot linear like spoken languageMany messages can be shared simultaneouslyASL has its own visual rulesAmerican Sign Language
slide5
YOU ME CROSS

MISS ME KNOW

SORRY

www.dvas.org

slide6
WE MUST HAVE

JUST MISSED

EACH OTHER. I AM SORRY.

www.dvas.org

slide7
DADDY MANY MANY HIT BLOOD ME SAW ME RAN TELL FRIEND ME AFRAID CALL POLICE MAYBE JAIL

www.dvas.org

slide8
DADDY HIT HER SO MANY TIMES UNTIL I SAW THE BLOOD. I WAS SO SCARED AND RAN AND TOLD A FRIEND ABOUT IT. MY FRIEND CALLED THE POLICE AND MAYBE DADDY WILL GO TO JAIL.

www.dvas.org

slide9

"Without a legitimately recognized language, there is no culture;

without aculture, there is no self-identity;

without a self-identity, you just go ontrying to be what others demand you to be."

Lou Fant

lipreading experience
Lipreading Experience

25-30% of spoken language is visible on the lips

Many Deaf people don’t lipread

Bilingual Deaf people (ASL/English) have strong clozure skills

Clozure skills are a tool for educated guesswork along with context

Deaf survivors may lose their “lipreading” skills when enduring stress and trauma

audism
AUDISM

Discrimination or stereotypes against Deaf people:

Judgment that a Deaf person is incapable

Cultural ways of hearing people are preferable or superior to those of Deaf/signing culture

Belief that Deaf people are somehow less capable than hearing people

Audists can either be hearing or Deaf

audism hearing superiority
Audism =“Hearing Superiority”
  • Belief that a person is superior to another person because he/she can hear better
  • Behavior taught by medical system, public schools, oral programs, and hearing parents
  • Audism also happens during interactions between deaf people
pl 94 142 least restrictive environment not

PL 94-142 Least Restrictive EnvironmentNOT!

Required children with disabilities to attend public school as least restrictive environment

Law created most restrictive environment for Deaf children

Isolation without critical mass of Deaf peers

Growing up without a strong foundation in English or ASL

No Deaf adult role models

deafhood deafhood is a process of self liberation
DEAFHOODDeafhood is a process of self-liberation

Deaf people evaluate and liberate themselves from Audism

slide19

Women are 5 to 8 times more likely than men to experience domestic violenceU.S. Department of Justice (1998)

Deaf Women are at greater risk for fatality because of lack of resources, access, and audism

DeafHope

slide20

Domestic Violence In Deaf Community

  • Aspects of domestic violence often overlooked by law enforcement, medical professionals, etc.
  • Deaf women survivors have less options
examples of domestic violence in the deaf community
Examples of Domestic Violence in the Deaf Community

Overuses floor stomping/pounding on table or door

Signs very close to your face

Criticizes your ASL skills or communication style

Makes you afraid with gestures, facial expressions, or exaggerated signs

Denies abuse by saying it is Deaf Culture to justify the behavior

examples of abusing hearing privilege
Examples of Abusing Hearing Privilege
  • Interprets to manipulate when police is involved
  • Doesn’t allow children to use ASL with survivor
  • Makes children feel ashamed of Deaf Culture
  • Puts down ASL
  • Criticizes survivor’s speech and English skills
  • Excludes survivor from important conversations/ decisions
compounding impact by abuser
COMPOUNDING IMPACT BY ABUSER

ABUSER

  • Society Bias/Audism
  • Barriers
  • Power and Control Tactics

Disability Advocacy Project of the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Seatttle, WA;

206-389-2515 (V) or 206-389-2900 (TTY), Leigh@wscadv.org

survivor s acts of resistance
Survivor’s Acts of Resistance
  • Network and Support
  • Autonomy
  • Safety Planning
  • Access

Disability Advocacy Project of the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Seatttle, WA;

206-389-2515 (V) or 206-389-2900 (TTY), Leigh@wscadv.org

deaf victims of domestic violence
Deaf VICTIMS of Domestic Violence
  • Amber Burroughs –

Illionois

  • Kisha Sullivan-

New York

  • Christine Bronk-

Wisconsin

  • Tallie Marie Antolin-

South Carolina

  • Heather Villalba-

Maryland

  • Priscilla Vinci-

California

  • Penny Williams-

Utah

  • Darlene Vandergliesen-

South Dakota

slide27

MORE STRIKES AGAINST DEAF SURVIVORSRevictimized by audism in the system:police, courts, shelters,social workers, counseling, etc.

audism impacts deaf survivors
Audism Impacts Deaf Survivors
  • Won’t seek help from the system because of years of audism and oppression
  • Easier to stay with abusive Deaf batterer
lost survivor loses trust in both herself and the system after abuse
LOSTSurvivor loses trust in both herself and the system after abuse

“I am so exhausted from trying to teach the hearing system about my access rights that I cannot focus on taking care of myself. I feel like giving up”

--Deaf survivor

slide30

Deaf-run DV/SV Agencies Mushrooming Throughout Our Nation

  • 1980s- Abused Deaf Women Advocacy Services (ADWAS) in Seattle, Washington
  • 1998-2000-National training to 15 states by ADWAS
  • 2003-DeafHope implemented in California
  • 2006- ADWAS opened first shelter/transitional homes
  • 2007-Twenty Deaf-run agencies and programs
  • 2008- 4th National Justice for Deaf Victims will be hosted in Vermont—New Executive Director hired this year
  • 2010- There will be approximately 40 Deaf DV/SV agencies
slide32

Growing Awareness in the Deaf Community

  • Access to training videos, websites, v/blogs
  • Deaf advocates visibility
  • Focus groups and community events
deaf survivor centered services
Deaf Survivor Centered Services
  • Services created by Deaf women
  • Peer advocacy within Deaf culture & language context changes from "us vs them" to "we"
slide34

General Deaf Domestic Violence Agencies’ ValuesDeaf survivor rediscovers her own power at a place in her own language, ASL, and Deaf culture context

  • Deaf Centered
  • Stakeholders are Deaf community members
  • Everyone is fluent in American Sign Language
  • Culture model
slide36

DeafHope Advocates and Deaf SurvivorsWe listen with our EYES without judgingWe ask in ASL what she wantsWe explain with our HANDS her it is not her fault.We give her VISUAL safety planWe work with her to CHANGE the systemThere is no US and THEM—Always WE

slide37

“When I first arrived at the deaf agency, I sighed with relief because now I can just focus 100% on healing. No more misunderstandings and stress”--Deaf Survivor

synergy of hearing allies and deaf advocate partnership
SYNERGY OF HEARING ALLIES AND DEAF ADVOCATE PARTNERSHIP
  • Hearing ally is willing to work side-by-side with Deaf advocate with open minds and hearts
  • Deaf advocate play the role of a cultural broker
  • Deaf advocate strives to equalize power balance between survivor and system
  • Deaf advocate provides resources for access
how to create deaf friendly shelters
HOW TO CREATE DEAF-FRIENDLY SHELTERS?

Deaf woman in a hearing group living situation where everyone speaks different language is very isolating and lonely

  • Video Phone and TTYs
  • Blank paper and pens
  • Allow survivor to keep her pager
  • Do not require her to participate in support groups
  • Make security system accessible
  • Unrestricted access to television with closed captioning
  • Allow Deaf survivor to visit friends and family during the day to get the support she needs and break the her isolation

ADWAS’ “Domestic Violence Handbook for Deaf People” (www.adwas.org)

sign language interpreters
Sign Language Interpreters

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 504

A major part of ADA’s reasonable accommodations is qualified sign language interpreters.

Service providers must always ask the Deaf survivor what communication accommodations she will need.

interpreters do not work alone
Interpreters Do Not Work Alone
  • Interpreters work in teams of two if meeting lasts more than an hour.
  • Team approach prevent injury
  • Team approach also maximizes quality of service that would be lost due to interpreter fatigue
slide44

Interpreter Arrangement

Deaf Survivor, Interpreter and Doctor

you get what you pay for with interpreters
You get what you pay for with Interpreters

The cost of qualified interpreters can be high –

The cost of missed information, misunderstandings, and limited access is always higher--

certified deaf interpreter
Certified Deaf Interpreter
  • Deaf interpreter certified by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf
  • Fluent in both English and American Sign Language
  • Has extensive knowledge and understanding of the Deaf community and Deaf culture
  • Communication mode of a Deaf individual is so unique and cannot be adequately comprehended by hearing interpreters so CDI gets involved
slide47

CDI and Interpreter(s) TeamUsing a CDI as a team member with qualified and certified hearing interpreters, communication by and for all parties involved may be more efficient, accurate and equal

  • CDI works as a team with the hearing interpreter(s)
  • Hearing ASL interpreter interprets the message from the hearing person to the CDI
  • The CDI will then process the message linguistically and culturally and interpret it to the Deaf person
videophones point to point
Videophones– Point to Point

TV with videophone for ASL communications

Deaf people can contact each other directly from one videophone to another

Deaf people see each other on their screen and can sign smoothly

High speed internet connection

Computer with webcam

why deaf people prefer vrs
Why Deaf People Prefer VRS
  • Deaf people can use their natural language (ASL) instead of written English.
  • Very beneficial to Deaf people who were born another country, have developmental delays, or did not receive equal access to education
  • Using written English on a TTY also means all intonation and "personality" in the conversation is lost
  • Using a video interpreter to make calls makes communication proceeds much more smoothly
slide52
DOs
  • Ask the survivor what she needs for communication access
  • Connect with nearest Deaf DV/SV agency
  • Ask if survivor if she is comfortable with assigned interpreter
  • Create budget for interpreters
  • Have a list of highly qualified interpreters recommended by Deaf community
  • Set up both videophone for VRS and TTY
don ts

“Don’ts”

Don’t ask the Deaf survivor to read lips

Don’t ask the hearing children to interpret

Don’t fingerspell to communicate

Don’t assume that writing is reasonable way to communicate

Don’t use VRS to substitute interpreting services

Don’t send her to shelter without access plans

for more information about vrs contact the following providers
For more information about VRS contact the following providers
  • Hands On VRS www.hovrs.com
  • Hawk Relay www.hawkrelay.com
  • SnapVRS www.SnapVRS.com
  • Sorenson VRS www.sorensonvrs.com
  • Sprint VRS www.sprintvrs.com