Entering the World of Deaf Survivors by Julie Rems-Smario, MS, MA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Entering the World of Deaf Survivors by Julie Rems-Smario, MS, MA

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  1. Entering the World of Deaf Survivorsby Julie Rems-Smario, MS, MA

  2. Deaf CommunityDeaf community see itself as a language and culture minority group • Deaf culture is learned in Deaf schools and Deaf clubs • 90 percent of Deaf people are born to hearing parents • 10 percent of Deaf people learn their culture from their family

  3. DEAF CULTURE & VALUES Strongly influenced by ASL Language and culture minority Deaf schools & Deaf clubs Deaf of Deaf (10 percent)Resistance to medical modelResists Alexander Graham Bell’s influence CollectivismDeafhood

  4. ASL is visual-gestural languageIts own syntax and grammarThree dimensional languageNot linear like spoken languageMany messages can be shared simultaneouslyASL has its own visual rules American Sign Language

  5. YOU ME CROSS MISS ME KNOW SORRY www.dvas.org

  6. WE MUST HAVE JUST MISSED EACH OTHER. I AM SORRY. www.dvas.org

  7. DADDY MANY MANY HIT BLOOD ME SAW ME RAN TELL FRIEND ME AFRAID CALL POLICE MAYBE JAIL www.dvas.org

  8. DADDY HIT HER SO MANY TIMES UNTIL I SAW THE BLOOD. I WAS SO SCARED AND RAN AND TOLD A FRIEND ABOUT IT. MY FRIEND CALLED THE POLICE AND MAYBE DADDY WILL GO TO JAIL. www.dvas.org

  9. "Without a legitimately recognized language, there is no culture; without aculture, there is no self-identity; without a self-identity, you just go ontrying to be what others demand you to be." Lou Fant

  10. Lipreading Experience 25-30% of spoken language is visible on the lips Many Deaf people don’t lipread Bilingual Deaf people (ASL/English) have strong clozure skills Clozure skills are a tool for educated guesswork along with context Deaf survivors may lose their “lipreading” skills when enduring stress and trauma

  11. AUDISM Discrimination or stereotypes against Deaf people: Judgment that a Deaf person is incapable Cultural ways of hearing people are preferable or superior to those of Deaf/signing culture Belief that Deaf people are somehow less capable than hearing people Audists can either be hearing or Deaf

  12. Audism =“Hearing Superiority” • Belief that a person is superior to another person because he/she can hear better • Behavior taught by medical system, public schools, oral programs, and hearing parents • Audism also happens during interactions between deaf people

  13. PL 94-142 Least Restrictive EnvironmentNOT! Required children with disabilities to attend public school as least restrictive environment Law created most restrictive environment for Deaf children Isolation without critical mass of Deaf peers Growing up without a strong foundation in English or ASL No Deaf adult role models

  14. Majority of Deaf survivors experienced AUDISM growing up with their hearing families

  15. DEAFHOODDeafhood is a process of self-liberation Deaf people evaluate and liberate themselves from Audism

  16. The Deafhood Movement is parallel to the Feminist Movement

  17. RECOMMENDED READING

  18. Women are 5 to 8 times more likely than men to experience domestic violenceU.S. Department of Justice (1998) Deaf Women are at greater risk for fatality because of lack of resources, access, and audism DeafHope

  19. Domestic Violence In Deaf Community • Aspects of domestic violence often overlooked by law enforcement, medical professionals, etc. • Deaf women survivors have less options

  20. Examples of Domestic Violence in the Deaf Community Overuses floor stomping/pounding on table or door Signs very close to your face Criticizes your ASL skills or communication style Makes you afraid with gestures, facial expressions, or exaggerated signs Denies abuse by saying it is Deaf Culture to justify the behavior

  21. Examples of Abusing Hearing Privilege • Interprets to manipulate when police is involved • Doesn’t allow children to use ASL with survivor • Makes children feel ashamed of Deaf Culture • Puts down ASL • Criticizes survivor’s speech and English skills • Excludes survivor from important conversations/ decisions

  22. COMPOUNDING IMPACT BY ABUSER ABUSER • Society Bias/Audism • Barriers • Power and Control Tactics Disability Advocacy Project of the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Seatttle, WA; 206-389-2515 (V) or 206-389-2900 (TTY), Leigh@wscadv.org

  23. Survivor’s Acts of Resistance • Network and Support • Autonomy • Safety Planning • Access Disability Advocacy Project of the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Seatttle, WA; 206-389-2515 (V) or 206-389-2900 (TTY), Leigh@wscadv.org

  24. Deaf VICTIMS of Domestic Violence • Amber Burroughs – Illionois • Kisha Sullivan- New York • Christine Bronk- Wisconsin • Tallie Marie Antolin- South Carolina • Heather Villalba- Maryland • Priscilla Vinci- California • Penny Williams- Utah • Darlene Vandergliesen- South Dakota

  25. MORE STRIKES AGAINST DEAF SURVIVORSRevictimized by audism in the system:police, courts, shelters,social workers, counseling, etc.

  26. Audism Impacts Deaf Survivors • Won’t seek help from the system because of years of audism and oppression • Easier to stay with abusive Deaf batterer

  27. LOSTSurvivor loses trust in both herself and the system after abuse “I am so exhausted from trying to teach the hearing system about my access rights that I cannot focus on taking care of myself. I feel like giving up” --Deaf survivor

  28. Deaf-run DV/SV Agencies Mushrooming Throughout Our Nation • 1980s- Abused Deaf Women Advocacy Services (ADWAS) in Seattle, Washington • 1998-2000-National training to 15 states by ADWAS • 2003-DeafHope implemented in California • 2006- ADWAS opened first shelter/transitional homes • 2007-Twenty Deaf-run agencies and programs • 2008- 4th National Justice for Deaf Victims will be hosted in Vermont—New Executive Director hired this year • 2010- There will be approximately 40 Deaf DV/SV agencies

  29. Growing Awareness in the Deaf Community • Access to training videos, websites, v/blogs • Deaf advocates visibility • Focus groups and community events

  30. Deaf Survivor Centered Services • Services created by Deaf women • Peer advocacy within Deaf culture & language context changes from "us vs them" to "we"

  31. General Deaf Domestic Violence Agencies’ ValuesDeaf survivor rediscovers her own power at a place in her own language, ASL, and Deaf culture context • Deaf Centered • Stakeholders are Deaf community members • Everyone is fluent in American Sign Language • Culture model

  32. Deaf advocates are fluent in ASL and culturally competent

  33. DeafHope Advocates and Deaf SurvivorsWe listen with our EYES without judgingWe ask in ASL what she wantsWe explain with our HANDS her it is not her fault.We give her VISUAL safety planWe work with her to CHANGE the systemThere is no US and THEM—Always WE

  34. “When I first arrived at the deaf agency, I sighed with relief because now I can just focus 100% on healing. No more misunderstandings and stress”--Deaf Survivor

  35. Are You Ready for the Growing Field of Deaf DV/SV Services???

  36. SYNERGY OF HEARING ALLIES AND DEAF ADVOCATE PARTNERSHIP • Hearing ally is willing to work side-by-side with Deaf advocate with open minds and hearts • Deaf advocate play the role of a cultural broker • Deaf advocate strives to equalize power balance between survivor and system • Deaf advocate provides resources for access

  37. HOW TO CREATE DEAF-FRIENDLY SHELTERS? Deaf woman in a hearing group living situation where everyone speaks different language is very isolating and lonely • Video Phone and TTYs • Blank paper and pens • Allow survivor to keep her pager • Do not require her to participate in support groups • Make security system accessible • Unrestricted access to television with closed captioning • Allow Deaf survivor to visit friends and family during the day to get the support she needs and break the her isolation ADWAS’ “Domestic Violence Handbook for Deaf People” (www.adwas.org)

  38. Deaf survivors’ children are also survivors Don’t ask them to interpret

  39. Sign Language Interpreters The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 504 A major part of ADA’s reasonable accommodations is qualified sign language interpreters. Service providers must always ask the Deaf survivor what communication accommodations she will need.

  40. Interpreters Do Not Work Alone • Interpreters work in teams of two if meeting lasts more than an hour. • Team approach prevent injury • Team approach also maximizes quality of service that would be lost due to interpreter fatigue

  41. Interpreter Arrangement Deaf Survivor, Interpreter and Doctor

  42. You get what you pay for with Interpreters The cost of qualified interpreters can be high – The cost of missed information, misunderstandings, and limited access is always higher--

  43. Certified Deaf Interpreter • Deaf interpreter certified by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf • Fluent in both English and American Sign Language • Has extensive knowledge and understanding of the Deaf community and Deaf culture • Communication mode of a Deaf individual is so unique and cannot be adequately comprehended by hearing interpreters so CDI gets involved

  44. CDI and Interpreter(s) TeamUsing a CDI as a team member with qualified and certified hearing interpreters, communication by and for all parties involved may be more efficient, accurate and equal • CDI works as a team with the hearing interpreter(s) • Hearing ASL interpreter interprets the message from the hearing person to the CDI • The CDI will then process the message linguistically and culturally and interpret it to the Deaf person

  45. TTYs

  46. Video Relay Service (VRS)

  47. Videophones– Point to Point TV with videophone for ASL communications Deaf people can contact each other directly from one videophone to another Deaf people see each other on their screen and can sign smoothly High speed internet connection Computer with webcam