Immersion Education in Canada: Stability and Change. Peter MacIntyre Cape Breton University Presented in Graz, Austria Sept 24, 2008 at the European Centre for Modern Languages. Outline. The language map of Canada Describe French Immersion Approach Support and Criticism of Immersion
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Swain and Johnson (1997) list 8 core features of Immersion
1. L2 is medium of instruction.
2. Immersion curriculum parallels local L1 curriculum.
3. Overt support for L1.
4. The program aims for additive bilingualism.
5. Exposure to L2 largely confined to classroom.
6. Students enter with similar (and limited) levels of L2 proficiency.
7. Teachers are bilingual.
8. Classroom culture is that of the local L1 community.
- education is a provincial responsibility in Canada
Report from the
Canadian Council on Learning
Education system must focus on:
1.recruitment of qualified teachers,
2. finding or developing curricula and teaching materials that are up to date and relevant for today’s youth,
3. maintaining secondary immersion programs despite the lack of teaching resources in courses,
4. recruiting immersion students among Aboriginal and new Canadians.
Canada’s only officially
1) French programming for Anglophone children begins at Grade 5 with Intensive French.
2) Late Immersion first offered beginning in Gr. 6
6) All academic materials for classroom use be available in French and English at the same time.
7) That comprehensive evaluations be carried out.
14) University training courses be reviewed.
17) Parents be informed of the L2 employment criteria for both the Provincial and Federal governments.
18) Retain target of 70% of high school graduates function effectively in speaking their 2nd official language.
Children and Youth,
Eastern Nova Scotia
Swain and Johnson (1997) note the rapid growth of highly diverse populations in large Canadian urban centers.