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Attitude and Attitude Change. Attitude and Attitude Change. Background Definition -- learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to an object or a class of objects Attributes of attitudes Learned Targeted (toward an object) Stability.

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attitude and attitude change2
Attitude and Attitude Change
  • Background
    • Definition -- learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to an object or a class of objects
    • Attributes of attitudes
      • Learned
      • Targeted (toward an object)
      • Stability
attitude and attitude change3
Attitude and Attitude Change

Attributes of attitudes (Cont’d)

  • Valence ( + or - )
  • Attitude Behavior
    • La Piere (1934)
    • Corey (1937)
    • De Friese & Ford (1960)
    • Fishbein & Ajzen (1977)
    • Time, Action, Context & Target (TACT)
why use attitudes
Why use Attitudes?
  • Predictors of Consumption Behavior (for New & Existing Products)
    • Past Behavior
    • Current Attitudes
  • Study Advertising Effectiveness
  • Segmentation Base
  • Help Marketers Understand the Reasons Why a Product is (not) Successful
attitude models
Attitude Models
  • Basic Fishbein Multi-Attribute Model
    • AO= S bi(ei)
      • Where:
        • AO = Attitude toward an object O
        • bi = belief about an object O regarding attribute i (a “salient” attribute)
        • ei = evaluation of the importance of attribute i
attitude models cont d
Attitude Models (Cont’d)
  • Basic Fishbein Multi-Attribute Model
    • Example: Taste Effectiveness

Scope +3 +3

Listerine -2 +2

Evaluation of

Importance +1 +3

  • Ao = ?
attitude models cont d7
Attitude Models (Cont’d)
  • Importance of Attitude Score from the multi-attribute model
    • Valenced (+ or -)
    • Strength of attitude (magnitude of score)
    • Implications for attitude change
attitude models cont d8
Attitude Models (Cont’d)
  • Attitude Change Strategies Using the Multi-attribute Model
    • Change brand beliefs (bi) for your brand
      • Note differences for “bad” versus “good” attributes
    • Change brand beliefs for competing brand
    • Change evaluations of importance (ei)
    • Add new attributes (i’s)
advantages of multi attribute attitude models
Advantages of Multi-attribute Attitude Models
  • Helps identify brand strengths and weaknesses from C’s Perspective
  • Helps determine if C’s are perceiving the brand as intended
  • Allows for an a priori evaluation of attitude change strategies
  • Provides a basis for benefit segmentation schemes
disadvantages of multi attribute attitude models
Disadvantages of Multi-attribute Attitude Models
  • Provides Little Indication of How Easily an Attitude Might be Changed
  • Provides Little Guidance of How to Change Attitudes (although Aad model may)
attitude models cont d11

i

i

Attitude Models (Cont’d)
  • Attitude Toward the Ad Model
    • AO= W1 [Sum bi(ei)] + W2 [Aad ]
    • Where:
      • AO = Attitude toward an object O
      • bi = belief about O regarding attribute I
      • ei = evaluation of the importance of attribute i
      • Aad = Attitude toward an Ad
      • W = weight of component
attitude models12
Attitude Models
  • Determination of Weights
    • Use of Elaboration Likelihood Model
      • High AMI -- both central [bi(ei)] and peripheral [Aad] factors influence brand attitudes
      • Low AMI -- only peripheral [Aad] factors influence brand attitudes
    • Implications
      • Central -- Strength of Message
      • Peripheral – Spokesperson, Music, Attractive Models, Humor
attitudes and involvement a summary
Attitudes and Involvement A Summary
  • High Involvement Consumers
    • Information Processors
    • Attitude Formation & Change via the Central Route
    • Mutli-Attribute Models are very applicable (Beliefs precede Attitudes)
    • Attitude is held with greater certainty, it is resistant to change
attitudes and involvement a summary14
Attitudes and InvolvementA Summary
  • High Involvement Consumers (Cont.)
    • Promotions should attempt to change beliefs about salient attributes
      • Informative
      • Print Media
    • Brand Loyalty involves commitment; it is real and true
attitudes and involvement a summary15
Attitudes and InvolvementA Summary
  • Low Involvement Consumers
    • Passive Learners
    • Attitude Formation & Change via the Peripheral Route
    • Multi-Attribute Models are not very applicable
    • Attitude is held with less certainty, it may be easily changed
attitudes and involvement a summary16
Attitudes and Involvement A Summary
  • Low Involvement Consumers (Cont.)
    • Promotion should attempt to link peripheral issues to the brand or perhaps induce trial
      • Little Information
      • Broadcast Media
      • Endorsers, Music, Execution Cues Dominate
      • Feature Coupons or other price promotions
      • In-store Promotion is important
    • Brand Loyalty is spurious