ADE 6070International Adult Education Canada Prepared by Ali
Other National Symbols of Canada • The Arms of Canada This design was approved in 1994. We can find ribbon with the motto: Desiderantes Melirem Patriam (They desire a better country)
The Royal Union Flag • Also called Union Jack • It was a national symbol since 1904 It serves two purposes: • First, it is the national flag of the United Kingdom • Second, it is flown as a symbol of membership in the Commonwealth and allegiance to the Crown as was approved by the Parliament on December 18, 1964
The Beaver The Maple Tree
Iroquois • A confederacy of Aboriginal peoples originally living in the northern part of what is now New York State. The tribes originally included the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga and Mohawk nations. The Tuscarora joined in the18th century.
Aboriginal • A term that describes all indigenous people in Canada, usually including the Métis and the Inuit.
According to Modern Languages Notes, there are three different theories that give three different explanations to the origin of word Canada: • The river Canada ( meaning the St. Lawrence) gave the name to the country • From the small province of Canada, the designation was extended to the whole valley of St. Lawrence • The term is of Indian origin.( p. 165)
Monetary Unit: • Canadian Dollar
Cabinet • The political executive that develops and promotes the passage of government policies and legislation. Today, in Canada, the prime minister selects Cabinet ministers, who each usually head a department (for example, the Department of Finance)
Provinces and Territories • Canada is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories. Each of the 10 provinces has its own constitution; a lieutenant governor installed by the governor general; a legislative assembly whose leader is the provincial premier; and its own judicial system, with a right of appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada. • Elected officials govern municipalities. • Municipalities are subject to provincial authority and not to federal authority.
10 Provinces of Canada Alberta • Abbr. ALTA • Area (sq. mi.) 255,540 • Population(2011C) 3,645,257 • Capital Edmonton
British Columbia • Abbr. BC • Area (sq. mi.) 364,762 • Population(2011C) 4,400,057 • Capital Victoria
Manitoba • Abbr. MAN • Area (sq. mi.) 250,114 • Population(2011C) 1,196,000 • Capital Winnipeg
New Brunswick • Abbr. NB • Area (sq. mi.) 28,150 • Population(2011C) 751,171 • Capital Fredericton
Newfoundland and Labrador • Abbr. NL • Area (sq. mi.) 156,452 • Population(2011C) 514,536 • Capital St. John’s
Nova Scotia • Abbr. NS • Area (sq. mi.) 21,345 • Population(2011C) 921,727 • Capital Halifax
Ontario • Abbr. ONT • Area (sq. mi.) 415,596 • Population(2011C) 12,851,821 • Capital Toronto
Prince Edward Island • Abbr. PEI • Area (sq. mi.) 2,185 • Population(2011C) 140,204 • Capital Charlottetown
Québec • Abbr. QUE • Area (sq. mi.) 595,388 • Population(2011C) 7,903,001 • Capital Québec
Saskatchewan • Abbr. SASK • Area (sq. mi.) 251,365 • Population(2011C) 1,033,381 • Capital Regina
The Three Territories Northwest Territories • Abbr. NWT • Area (sq. mi.) 519,732 • Population(2011C) 44,000 • Capital Yellowknife
Yukon Territory • Abbr. YT • Area (sq. mi.) 186,271 • Population(2011C) 33,897 • Capital Whitehorse
Nunavut • Abbr. NVT • Area (sq. mi.) 808,181 • Population(2011C) 31,906 • Capital Iqaluit
Canada’s Natural Resources • Mining and timber in BC • Oil and natural gas in ALTA • The prairie provinces of SASK , MAN and parts of ALTA produce more than 20% of the world’s wheat • The West-central part of the country consists of large farms and prairies • The Rocky Mountains cover a large part of western Canada which is BC, YT and the western part of ALTA
The Province of Quebec • More than seven million Canadians claim French as their first language • Most of them are concentrated in the province of Quebec • The province is even demanding separation from Canada
Nunavut Territory • According to the Political Handbook of the World, "In early 1987 the Inuit, an Eskimo people accounting for about 17,000, won tentative agreement to the formation of their own territory (Nunavut) in the larger, eastern portion of the vast Northwest Territories… The creation of Nunavut was eventually approved in 1992, and the new territory was formally founded on April 1, 1999.”
Inuit • A group of people settled in the Arctic from Alaska to Greenland. They arrived from across the Bering Strait into Alaska about 4,000 years ago. • The word Inuit simply translates as “people”. In the past, the Inuit were called Eskimos, which is now considered a disparaging, derogative term since it literally means “eaters of raw meat.”
Métis • The term Métis is used to describe people of mixed native and European origin, and comes from an old French word meaning “mixed” • As such, Métis people have existed wherever European and Aboriginal people intermarried, especially along the St. Lawrence and in the west
First Nations • The name usually used by Aboriginal or indigenous people in Canada to describe themselves and may sometimes include the Métis and Inuit.
Nisga’a Indians • In 1998, the Nisga’a Indians satisfied a treaty that gave them 745 square miles of BC
Inuit communities in northern Quebec were granted semiautonomous status after signing an agreement with Federal and Quebec provincial government officials in 2009
In 2008, to reconcile Canada with its past treatment of indigenous peoples, Prime Minister Harper apologized for the century-long practice, discontinued only in 1990s, of removing aboriginal children from their homes for all but a few months a year • The goal of the program was to eliminate traditional beliefs and languages to assimilate the children, or to “kill the Indian in the child” as one of the school directors described it
Apology • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ryC74bbrEE
The Seven Years‘ War (1756-1763) • Independence (1867) • The Dominion of Canada (1867)
The Dominion of Canada is a confederation of first united provinces and is officially recognized by Great Britain with the passage of the British North America Act.
In 1949, Newfoundland decided to become the 10th province of Canada. • Officially, Canada become a country in 1982, and has its own Constitution. The British North America Act, from 1867 until 1982 , served as Canada’s basic law.
Political Parties Liberal Party • It is the most influential political party • Originated in 1867 • Many times it held majority in the House of CommonsIt embodies a centrist policy