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Chapter 14 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Behavior of Gases. Chapter 14. Section 1. Properties of Gases. Section 1 Learning Targets. 14.1.1 – I can explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are. 14.1.2 – I can describe three factors that affect gas pressure. Compressibility.

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section 1
Section 1

Properties of Gases

section 1 learning targets
Section 1 Learning Targets

14.1.1 – I can explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are.

14.1.2 – I can describe three factors that affect gas pressure.

compressibility
Compressibility
  • Compressibility – a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure.
  • Gases are easily compressed because of the space between the particles.
factors affecting gas pressure
Factors Affecting Gas Pressure
  • The amount of gas, volume, and temperature are factors that affect gas pressure.
    • Pressure (P) in kilopascals (kPa)
    • Volume (V) in liters (L)
    • Temperature (T) in Kelvin (K)
    • Number of moles (n) in mole (mol)
amount of gas
Amount of Gas
  • You can use kinetic theory to predict and explain how gases will respond to a change of conditions.
  • As you add more gas particles the pressure increases.
amount of gas1
Amount of Gas
  • Once the pressure exceeds the strength of the container the container will burst.
slide8

Aerosol cans depend on the movement of gas from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure.

  • Pushing the spray button creates an opening between the inside of the can and the outside.
slide9

The gas flows through the opening to the lower pressure region outside.

  • The movement of the gas propels the paint out of the can until the gas can no longer propel paint out.
volume
Volume
  • You can raise the pressure exerted by a contained gas by reducing its volume.
  • The more a gas is compressed the greater the pressure.
temperature
Temperature
  • As a gas is heated, the temperature increases and the average kinetic energy also increases.
slide12

When the volume of a container is held constant and the temperature increases and the pressure increases.

section 2
Section 2

The Gas Laws

section 2 learning targets
Section 2 Learning Targets
  • 14.2.1 – I can describe the relationships among the temperature, pressure and volume of a gas.
  • 14.2.2 – I can use the combined gas law to solve problems.
slide16

Answer the following questions based on the graph from the previous slide.

    • When the volume is 2.0L, what is the pressure?
    • What would the pressure be if the volume were increased to 3.0L?
    • Based on the shape of the graph, describe the general pressure-volume relationship.
boyle s law pressure and volume
Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume
  • If the temperature is constant, as the pressure of a gas increases, the volume decreases.
slide18

Boyle’s law– states that for a given mass of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.

example
Example:
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O) is used as an anesthetic. The pressure on 2.50L of N2O changes from 105kPa to 40.5kPa. If the temperature does not change, what will the new volume be?
slide21

Answer the following questions based on the graph from the previous slide.

    • What is the unit of temperature?
    • What happens to the volume as the temperature rises?
    • If the temperature of a gas were 0K, what would the volume of the gas be?
charles s law temperature and volume
Charles’s Law: Temperature and Volume
  • As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant.
slide23

Charles’s law– states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant.

example1
Example:
  • If a sample of gas occupies 6.80L at 325°C, what will its volume be at 25°C if the pressure does not change? (HINT: temps need to be in Kelvin first)
slide25
How can you tell from the picture that there is a fixed amount of gas in the cylinder?

Describe what is happening in the cylinder as it’s being heated.

gay lussac s law pressure and temperature
Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and Temperature
  • As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant.
slide27

Gay-Lussac’s law– states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant.

example2
Example:
  • A sample of nitrogen gas has a pressure of 6.58kPa at 539K. If the volume does not change, what will the pressure be at 211K?
slide29

P

V

Boyle’s Law

Charles’s Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law

T

the combined gas law
The Combined Gas Law
  • Combined gas law – describes the relationships among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas.
slide31

The combined gas law allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.

slide32

P

V

Boyle’s Law

Combined

Gas Law

Charles’s Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law

T

slide33

Boyle’s Law

P

V

T

Charles’s Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law

example3
Example:
  • A gas at 155kPa and 25°C has an initial volume of 1.00L. The pressure of the gas increases to 605kPa as the temperature is raised to 125°C. What is the new volume?
section 3
Section 3

Ideal Gases

section 3 learning targets
Section 3 Learning Targets
  • 14.3.1 – I can compute the value of an unknown using the ideal gas law.
  • 14.3.2 – I can compare and contrast real and ideal gases.
ideal gas law
Ideal Gas Law
  • The combined gas law is good when the amount of gas does not change – this does not always stay constant though.
slide38

To calculate the number of moles of a contained gas requires an expression that contains the variable n.

  • The number of moles is directly proportional to the number of particles and can be introduced into the combined gas law by dividing each side by n.
slide39

Ideal gas constant – (R) has the value of 8.31 (L•kPa)/(K•mol).

  • Ideal gas law – includes the variables of P, V, T, and n.
    • P is the pressure (units of kPa)
    • V is the volume (units of L)
    • T is the temperature (units of K)
    • n is the number of moles (units of mol)
example4
Example:
  • When the temperature of a rigid hollow sphere containing 685L of helium gas is held at 621K, the pressure of the gas is 1.89x103kPa. How many moles of helium does the sphere contain?
ideal gases and real gases
Ideal Gases and Real Gases
  • An ideal gas is one that follows the gas laws under all conditions of temperature and pressure.
  • Real gases differ most from an ideal gas at low temperatures and high pressures.
slide44

Answer the following questions based on the graph from the previous slide.

    • What are the values of (PV)/(nRT) for an ideal gas at 20,000 and 60,000 kPa?
    • What variable is responsible for the differences between the two (CH4) curves?
    • How does an increase in pressure affect the (PV)/(nRT) ratio for real gases?
section 4
Section 4

Gases: Mixtures and Movements

section 4 learning targets
Section 4 Learning Targets
  • 14.4.1 – I can relate the total pressure of a mixture of gases to the partial pressures of the component gases.
  • 14.4.2 – I can explain how the molar mass of a gas affects the rate at which the gas diffuses and effuses.
dalton s law
Dalton’s Law
  • Partial pressure – the contribution of each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure.
  • In a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases.
slide50

Dalton’s law of partial pressures – states that at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

example5
Example:
  • Determine the total pressure of a gas mixture that contains oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. The partial pressures are: PO2 = 20kpa, PN2 = 46.7kPa; and PHe = 26.7kPa.
graham s law
Graham’s Law
  • Diffusion – tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout.
slide54

Effusion – a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container.

  • Gases of lower molar mass diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass.
thomas graham s contribution
Thomas Graham’s Contribution
  • Scottish chemist Thomas Graham studied rates of effusion in the 1840’s
  • Relates to KE = ½ mv2.
    • Kinetic energy of the particles (KE) is related to the mass (m) and their velocity (v).
slide56

Graham’s law of effusion – states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas’s molar mass.

example6
Example:
  • Determine the rate of effusion for helium compared to nitrogen.
  • This result tells me that the helium effuses/diffuses faster than the nitrogen at the same temperature.