Red River Rebellion • Please get out your notes • You are responsible for taking down important notes • Important notes highlighted with NOTES!
Mainly Métis (>80% 1860s) • Trading and hunters • Developed a distinct culture • Close-knit community Background: Red River Settlement
Fear of US Annexation(from Canada and RRS) • Some people weren’t happy with how the HBC governed the Red River Settlement NOTES! Background: Red River Settlement NOTES!
Background: Red River Settlement Why did the HBC want to sell the Red River colony? Any ideas?
Why did the HBC want to sell the Red River colony? • 3 Reasons • 1. Wasn’t a agriculturally successful • 2. Fur trade was on the decline (less profitable) • 3. Canada wanted Rupert’s Land: WHY? Background: Red River Settlement NOTES!
Why Canada wanted Red River NOTES! • John A. Macdonald wanted a Canada that was... “A Mari usque ad Mare” • US threat: (Minnesota had 300,000 people just south of Red River - Fear of annexation) • Great farm land for Western expansion
This led to …. The Rupert’s Land Act,1868
Critical Thinking Exercise • To understand opinions about Canada’s purchase of Rupert’s Land Read Pg 217 Canada Revisited • Understand each parties opinion towards the takeover of Rupert’s Land
On October 11, 1869, Canada sent out surveying crews to Rupert’s Land. Met by Metis indifference
Canada &Surveyors The Metis NOTES! See page 105 Challenge of the West
Métis and Canadian Differences • Land surveying • Ideas on Land Ownership-Métis hadn’t bought land-But they had established small farms NOTES!
To Make Matters Worse • John Schultz “Canadian Party” - He owned the Nor’wester newspaper • An immigrant from eastern Canada, was a vocal and powerful Métis hater • He championed Canadian interests NOTES!
John Schultz • Made comments that under modern times would be regarded as “promoting hatred” Primary Source: “The Métis should either be driven from the country, or kept as cart drivers” “The Métis, the indolent (slow) and the careless, like the native tribes of the country, will fall back before the march of superior intelligence” NOTES!
A Leader Emerges: Louis Riel • Hated and lack of respect for Métis rights and people demanded action • Louis Riel emerged as the leader of the Métis resistance • Blocked surveying crews
Who was Louis Riel? • Complete a Bio-file on Louis Riel • Use Canada Revisited on Pg 219
Louis the Leader • Set up the National Committee of the Metis • Fought for language, and rights of the Metis • Blocked lieutenant-governor McDougall entry into Red River Settlement NOTES!
Métis Capture HBC’s Fort Garry~The Rebellion Begins~ • Seized munitions • Didn’t want to rebel against Canada • They just wanted to protect Metis culture and rights NOTES!
Metis Provisional Government • Established a provisional government to negotiate with Canada • Wanted the Red River Settlement to be accepted into Confederation as the province of Manitoba • Established a List of Rights (see hand-out) NOTES!
Metis List of Rights: ~5 major demands~ NOTES! 1. The right for the territory to become a province 2. Representation in Canadian government 3. Control over local affairs 4. Both French and English in schools and courts 5. Metis retain land, customs and way of life
Metis Rebellion • Captured John Schultz (Canadian Party) and the very hostile/angry Thomas Scott • Scott threatened to kill Riel and hit guards. • Scott sentenced to death by Riel’s provisional government (read about Thomas Scott’s execution Pg106-108) NOTES!
Reaction to Thomas Scott Execution • Uproar in Ontario (see hand-out) - Why Ontario not Quebec? • Hero or Villain? • Newspapers called for revenge
5 Steps to Interpreting Paintings • Step 1: What do you see? Identify people and places • Step 2: What is the Context? What event is happening • Step 3: What is being portrayed? How are people made to look? • Step 4: What is the artist’s bias? • How does the artist feel about the event? • Step 5: What is the Message? What is the painting telling us?
POP QUIZ 1 Who was Louis Riel? 2 What did the Metis people want? 3 Why did the Metis feel threatened? 4 Who was against the Metis? 5 Name 2 demands the Metis wanted from the Metis List of Rights? 6 In the absence of a government what did the national committee of the Metis set up? 7 Why was Thomas Scott sentenced to death by the Metis court? 8 What was the reaction to Thomas Scott’s death? 9 In your opinion was the illustration of Thomas Scott’s execution a primary source illustration? Unbiased or biased? 10 Name one thing you should do in the event of a lockdown?
The Manitoba Act, 1870 NOTES! REVIEW VIDEO ON L R & RED RIVER REBELLION
After the Manitoba ActLand is Given Out: Scrips • Dominion land office conducted a census • Found there were around 5088 people to distribute land to • People applied for land (in English) • Scrips were given out ($160)(any substitute for currency which is not legal tender) • Many Metis didn’t understand the Scrip System and sold them to developers
After the Manitoba Act NOTES! • Many of the Métis moved from Manitoba to the Northwest Territories (Saskatchewan)
After the Manitoba Act NOTES! • Why did they move? • Ontario settlers and troops resented the Metis • The buffalo were being over hunted
After the Manitoba Act • Riel Flees to US Why? • Macdonald sent 1200 troops to: -appease Ontario -protect from US annexation • Troops were very violent and attacked Metis • Primary Source:“Should these miserable half-breeds not disband, they must be put down” -Macdonald NOTES!