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CH 4 and CO 2 from space : The SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and Precursor S5 missions Guerlet, Schepers, Galli, Butz 1 , Frankenberg 2 , Hasekamp, Landgraf, Houweling, Ilse Aben SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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slide1

CH4 and CO2 from space :

The SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and Precursor S5 missions

Guerlet, Schepers, Galli, Butz1, Frankenberg2, Hasekamp, Landgraf, Houweling, Ilse Aben

SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands

1Institute for Meteorology and Climate research, Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany

2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA

slide2

Global surface network high accuracy, but

limited in coverage (e.g. Tropics) to accurately quantify contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions.

Satellite observations are complementary.

Less accurate but with global coverage

But requirements very demanding (sub) % level

swir ch 4 and co 2 missions
SWIR CH4 (and CO2) missions :

SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT

2002 – 2013/2014

CH4 (and CO2)

and many other species

GOSAT

2009 - …

CH4 and CO2

TROPOMI on Precursor Sentinel-5

2014 – 2021, Sentinel-5 2020 - …

CH4and many other species

OCO Only CO2, 2013

slide11

One of the most critical issues is scattering by

aerosols and cirrus (cloud-free observations)

slide12

SCIAMACHY CO2

370 ppm

390 ppm

Sahara

Sciamachy CO2

TOMS AI

July:

October:

Houweling et al., ACP (2005)

slide13

RemoteC algorithms

Frankenberg et al., Science 2005

, heritage Sciamachy

SCIAMACHY, GOSAT(1.6 mm)

GOSAT (0.75,1.6 ,2,2.1 mm) , TROPOMI (0.75 & 2.3 mm)

Neither method is perfect, methods can be tested using GOSAT

2003 2008 sciamachy average
2003-2008 SCIAMACHY average

Frankenberg, Science 2005

time series over the sahara
Time-series over the Sahara

Increase in methane observed as of 2007

Frankenberg, JGR 2011

slide16

GOSAT : 1st dedicated GHG mission (2009 - …)

Multi-band high spectral resolution FTIR

Circular FOV, 10 km

Cloud Aerosol Imager

High spatial resolution 500 meter

slide17

Validation columns CH4 and CO2 GOSAT :

Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON)

Ground-based network of FTIR spectrometers set up for the

validation of satellite based CO2 (and CH4, N2O, HF ,CO, H2O and

HDO) column measurements.

We used 12 stations for validation of our GOSAT CH4 and CO2 columns

slide18

CO2

Processed ~ 1,5 years

station-to-station bias variability :

~0.23% (stdv)

Scatter ~ 1%

Butz, GRL 2011

slide19

CH4

station-to-station bias variability :

~0.23% (stdv)

Scatter ~ 1%

Proxy and Full-Physics show very

similar TCCON comparison

Butz, GRL 2011

slide20

Number of important corrections applied :

  • Ad-hoc additive offset correction to correct for non-linearity
  • O2 scaling to correct for probably spectroscopy issues
  • Apply cirrus filter
slide22

GOSAT XCH4proxyvsfullphysics: fromthecomparisonwith TCCON, the 2 dataproductshavesimilarquality. Comparisonofthe global mapsoveroneyear :

Sahara shows the greater difference: overestimation from full physics, due to high albedo + aerosol load? Remark: those are seasonal biases

slide23

CH4Proxy versus full physics method :

Sahara

  • TM5-NOAA always lower
  • Difference between proxy and full physics GOSAT
  • in spring-summer. Proxy lower.
  • Spring-summer dust storm periods  overestimation
  • by full physics due to high aerosol load and high albedo

Schepers, 2011

slide24

India

CH4/CO2

CO2 Carbon Tracker

CO2 full physics

Carbon Tracker not perfect, effect visible in proxy CH4

slide25

SATELLITE PAYLOAD

CONTRIBUTION TO GMES SERVICES

  • TROPOMI: UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR push-broom grating spectrometer.
  • Spectral range: 270-500 nm, 675-775 nm, 2305-2385 nm
  • Spectral Resolution: 0.25-1.1 nm
  • Observation Mode: Nadir, global daily coverage, ground pixel 7x7km2 at nadir
  • Orbit: Sun synchronous, 824 km, 13:30 hr dayside equator crossing time.
  • O3: total and tropospheric column, profile
  • NO2: tropospheric and total column
  • CO: total column
  • SO2: total column
  • CH4: total column
  • Aerosol: absorbing index, type, optical depth
  • CH2O: tropopsheric column
  • H2O: total column
  • BrO: total column

sentinel-5 precursor

GMES ATMOSPHERE MISSION IN POLAR ORBIT

  • The ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) is a pre-operational mission focussing on global observations of the atmospheric composition for air quality and climate.
  • The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is the payload of the S-5P mission and is jointly developed by The Netherlands and ESA.
  • The planned launch date for S-5P is 2014 with a 7 year design lifetime.
slide26

CH4 TROPOMI simulations cirrus/aerosol error :

TROPOMI is able to correct – to large extent- for lightpath modification

due to cirrus/aerosols, in fact similarly to GOSAT.

Other wavelength band, and lower spectral resolution.

Butz, Rem.Sens.Environ. 2011

slide27

ESA Climate Change Initiative :

Provide consistent long term data on ECVs from space

Essential Climate Variable (ECV)

Greenhouse Gases (GHG), CO2 & CH4

Project lead : Michael Buchwitz,

Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP),

University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

slide28

GHG-CCI Project Overview

  • Goal: To deliver global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 information needed for a better understanding of regional GHG surface fluxes (sources & sinks)
  • Core products: Column-averaged near-surface-sensitive CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT & TANSO-FTS/GOSAT; generated with ECV Core Algorithms (ECAs); several ECAs per product in competition; the best algorithm for a given product will be selected after 2 year Round Robin phase with several algorithm-improvement – processing – analysis cycles
  • Additional constraints products: CO2 and CH4 profiles and partial columns from AIRS, IASI, ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY solar occultation; generated with Additional Constraints Algorithms (ACAs)
  • ECV generation: In year 3 using selected best algorithm(s) (+ intermediate products if available)
  • Activities: User requirements definition, algorithm improvements, data processing and analysis, calibration improvements, validation, ...
  • Linked to and complementary with European GMES Global Atmospheric Core Service (MACC & follow-ons)
slide29

summary :

  • SCIAMACHYalreadyprovidessince 2003 important 1st global view on
  • CH4 columns fromspace. Used in globalemissioninversions.
  • GOSAT 1stdedicatedgreenhouse gas mission nowproviding
  • its 1stresultsfor CH4and CO2.
  • Validationwith TCCON stations shows verypromisingresults :
  • Station-to-station bias variability ~a few tens of a percent, scatter <1%
  • Global data processing on-going, ready for source/sinkinversions.
  • GOSAT data is ideallysuitedto test different retrieval approaches
  • TROPOMI Precursor Sentinel 5 will continue SCIAMACHY and GOSAT
  • CH4 series as of ~2015, followedbySentinel 5 from 2020 onwards
  • Space basedobservations of CH4and CO2 look verypromising !!!