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The English Constitutional Monarchy. Ann-Houston Campbell, Caroline Woods, Rachel Overby. Before The English Constitutional Monarchy. English Civil War (Eleven Years) Oliver Cromwell rules England/Scotland/Ireland When Cromwell dies, his son Richard becomes ruler but soon retired.

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the english constitutional monarchy

The English Constitutional Monarchy

Ann-Houston Campbell, Caroline Woods, Rachel Overby

before the english constitutional monarchy
Before The English Constitutional Monarchy
  • English Civil War (Eleven Years)
  • Oliver Cromwell rules England/Scotland/Ireland
    • When Cromwell dies, his son Richard becomes ruler but soon retired.
    • The throne is offered to Charles II(son of Charles I)
charles ii
Charles II
  • Charles II ruled under the Restoration.
  • Religion under Charles II
    • He was a Anglican and believed in religious toleration.
    • Parliament disagreed and passed the Clarendon Code.
    • The Clarendon Code required all clergymen to swear an oath supporting the Anglican Church.
  • Secret Treaty with Louis XIV
    • Louis XIV helped England with the Dutch War of 1672
    • Charles II promised his conversion to Catholicism
      • Charles II waited to convert until he was on his deathbed.
charles ii cont
Charles II (CONT.)
  • Charles II had no legitimate heir to succeed him.
  • His brother (James II) would be next in line.
  • James II was Catholic!!!!
  • Anglican nobility are NOT happy about this.
  • The Anglican nobility fought over the issue of succession. (Tories vs. Whigs)
tories vs whigs
Tories vs. Whigs
  • Tories – supporters of Duke of York (James II)
  • Whigs – supporters of an Protestant monarch
    • John Locke was a political philosopher who believed in the contractual theory of government.
      • contractual theory of government – government relied on a contract between rulers and subjects
  • James II becomes the next king of England.
james ii
James II
  • James II’s heirs were his daughters Mary and Anne who were Protestants.
  • James II promoted religious toleration.
  • He granted Catholics the right to worship.
  • He replaced his officers with Catholics due to opposition in his courts.
james ii cont
James II (CONT.)
  • In 1688, James II (age 55) had a son who would rule as James III.
  • Protestants were furious because Mary and Anne (Protestants) were not heirs to the throne anymore. James III (Catholic) was now heir.
  • Tories and Whigs asked Mary’s husband William to rise against James II and defend the Protestants of England. James II fled the country.
  • William and Mary become rules of England in 1689.
parliament
Parliament
  • Parliament reconvened in 1689
    • Agreed that because James II left the country, it means he abdicated
    • Rule passed to the daughter of James II, Mary, and her husband, William
  • Parliament was strengthened overall, but the subjects were given many more rights
    • William and Mary accepted all the reforms willingly
  • Reforms ended royal absolutism in the British Isles and brought a constitutional monarchy- monarch and Parliament ruled as partners
changes made by parliament
Changes made by Parliament
  • Passed the Bill of Rights which upheld the Whig view that the rulers ruled by contract and not hereditary right
  • Declared cancelling Parliament is illegal
  • King can’t raise and army on his own
  • Subjects have the right to petition the government
  • Subjects have the right to have a jury trial, freedom from “cruel and unusual punishment”, excessive bail, and excessive court fines
  • House of Commons was still voted for by small number of property owning males
  • Repealed oppressive portions of Clarendon Code with the Toleration Act- gave religious tolerance to all but Unitarians
  • All office holders had to take Holy Communion in an Anglican Church
    • Some dissenters took Anglican Communion once a year in order to hold an office
    • This angered Anglicans
  • Royal judges are judges for life
king william and queen mary
King William and Queen Mary
  • William agreed to rule with Mary in hopes of defeating Louis XIV by participating in the War of the League of Augsburg
  • Reign of William and Mary began 25 years of war against France
    • Whigs supported the war
    • Tories didn’t like the rising land taxes
      • Both parties fought fiercely for election to sets in the House of Commons
succession and scotland
Succession and Scotland
  • When William and Mary died, the crown passed to James II’s younger Protestant daughter, Anne
  • Anne had no heir, Parliament decided
    • They voted that the line of succession would pass to the Protestant granddaughter of James I, Sophia
  • Sophia died before Anne died, so Sophia’s son George became king
  • Scotland was still being ruled over by England
    • Scotland was suffering from very bad economic and financial problems
    • 1707: Scotland agreed to theAct of Union which united Scotland and England to create a united Britain
  • Events of this whole period were later referred to as the Glorious Revolutionbecause it kept the country Protestant and advanced Parliament
george i r 1714 1727
George I (r. 1714-1727)
  • Elector of Hanover who became the king of Great Britain
    • Recognized to the British throne by the Treaty of Utrecht, after defeating Louis XIV in war
  • After George became king, James II led an uprising in Scotland as an attempt to regain the crown
    • After this failed the Whigs accused the up risers of treason
    • Georges’ favor for the Whigs over was shown
sir robert walpole 1676 1745
Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745)
  • Leader of the Whigs and the most important minister in England (minister from 1721-1742)
    • Refused the king’s offer to ennoble him
    • Served George II after the death of George I
    • Under the rule of Walpole Britain had political stability that was different from George I’s rule of turmoil
  • British began to feel a new identity of being “free-born”
  • After the defeat of James II in Ireland (1689), there was English dominance
  • Current British political life: mixed monarchy- Protestant king ruled jointly with parliament