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josef stalin. Hae Sol Kim Mary Gad. origins- Stalin’s early life. Expelled from school right before he graduated for speaking out against the government Joined underground revolutionary Marxist movement in Tpilisi

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josef stalin
josefstalin

Hae Sol Kim

Mary Gad

origins stalin s early life
origins- Stalin’s early life
  • Expelled from school right before he graduatedfor speaking out against the government
  • Joined underground revolutionary Marxist movement in Tpilisi
  • 1901- elected a member of the Tpilisi committee of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party
  • Arrested and exiled to Siberia the following year
  • When the Communist Party split into two factions, he joined the Bolsheviks
  • After he escaped, he started organizing bank robberies and participated in congresses.
  • He met Lenin at one of the congresses and Lenin recruited him
origins russia in the 1920s
Origins- Russia in the 1920s
  • Midst of a Social Revolution (Russian Revolution 1917-1918)
  • Already a single-party state: Communist Party
  • Lenin was the leader, but was very ill
  • Stalin vs Trotsky for Lenin’s position
slide4
v.
  • Trotsky (right) was a firm Marxist who wanted support for a worldwide revolution against capitalism
  • Trotsky wanted a Permanent Revolution
  • Stalin (left) wanted to work on socialist views in Russia first
  • Stalin’s supported a Socialism in One Country idea, which meant that he would try to change Russia into a full-on communist country first. It was more ideal and practical, so more followers supported him instead of Lenin.
  • Stalin put his supporters into top jobs and isolated Trotsky in his own party
origins emergence of a leader
Origins- Emergence of a leader
  • Stalin got rid of all opposition by turning the party against the three main rivals- Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev. He betrayed Kamenev and Zinoviev after they ruined their reputations trying to get rid of Trotsky.
  • He believed that Russia was behind the world by 50 years, so Russia needs to catch up in 10 years. This led to his 5-year plan.
  • He had two aims: a centrally planned economy (planned economy) and a totalitarian system of government
  • As General Secretary of the Communist Party, Stalin was able to consolidate his power
  • Used Lenin’s death as a way to gain popular support
establishment methods
Establishment- methods
  • He presented himself as patient and calm, and as a role of the administrator everywhere he went- he appealed to his colleagues
  • He stood behind the scenes of any drama, although he was the catalyst for most of it, and gained the people’s trust
  • His ideal for socialism in Russia provided people with long-awaited stability
  • He cunningly put his fellow party members against each other, while playing the role of mediator and the one who implemented the will of the majority
  • Power was his in 1928
rule policies
Rule- policies
  • 5 Year Plans- He had roughly thirteen 5-year plans, but the first one is his most famous.
  • First 5 Year Plan- (1928-1932)
    • In 1928, Stalin outlined the 1st of many five-year plans for development of the USSR’s economy
    • The five-year plans set unrealistic quotas to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity
    • To try and reach these unrealistic quotas, the government limited consumer production
    • People faced shortages of housing, food, clothing and other goods
    • People were not allowed to eat if they did not work- no revolts
    • The government controlled every aspect of the worker’s life, which took a toll on peoples personal lives.
    • It was ultimately a success, and he achieved his quota in four years instead of the designated five.
rule policies1
Rule-policies
  • The second Five-Year Plan (1933-37) continued and expanded the first.
  • The third plan (1938-42) was interrupted by World War II.
  • The fourth covered the years 1946-50, the fifth 1951-55. The sixth plan (1956-60) was discarded in 1957, primarily because it overcommitted available resources and could not be fulfilled.
  • It was replaced by a Seven-Year Plan (1959-65), which fell far short of estimated increases in agricultural (especially wheat) production.
  • The Seven-Year Plan was considered the start of a longer period (20 years) devoted to the establishment of the material and technical basis of a Communist society.
  • The late 1960s and early 1970s saw increased emphasis placed on consumer goods, and the 9th Five-Year Plan (1971-75) for the first time gave priority to light industry rather than heavy industry.
  • The agricultural sector still grew far less than projected in the 10th (1976-80) and 11th (1981-85) Five-Year Plans, and overall economic performance was poor.
  • The 12th and final Five-Year Plan (1986-90) projected increases in consumer goods and energy savings, but the economy began to slide, shrinking by 4% in 1990. The dissolution of the Soviet Union made the formation of a 13th Five-Year Plan a moot point.
rule policies2
RULE- policies
  • Collectivism
    • In 1925, the government seized 25 million privately owned farms
    • The government combined them into collective farms
    • Peasants resisted the government and Stalin used terror and violence to force the peasants to work
    • Stalin used terror and violence to force peasants to work on the collectives
    • Between 5 and 10million peasants died as a result of Stalin’s agricultural policies
    • Caused widespread famine later on
rule social freedoms
Rule- social freedoms
  • The government controlled everything- including all aspects fo media
  • If people tried to read/write something else, they were punished severely or sent off to labor camps
  • He developed a “personality cult”- pictures, poems and novels glorifying Stalin. This was called “Social Realism”
  • Rigid program of discipline and education. Exams re-introduced (Originally banned by Lenin)
  • Attack on religions- churches shut down
  • Children expected to join youth organizations to be a good communist
  • Better working image created for women by state
rule maintaining power
Rule: Maintaining Power
  • Police Terror
  • Used terror and violence to force obedience
  • Monitored telephone lines, read mail, planted informers

Lavrent Beria

(right): head of secret police

rule maintaining power1
Rule: Maintaining Power
  • From 1936-38 known as “The Great Terror” – over 3 million executed and sent to labor camps between 37-38
  • Show trials
    • Important officials arrested, tortured, confessions (Zinoiev, and Kamenev)
    • Many of the most competent government officials and about half of the military officers were executed or jailed;
  • Purges successful in eliminating alternative leaders and into terrorizing masses into obedience
rule maintaining power2
Rule: Maintaining Power

2) Indoctrination and Propaganda

  • Stalin relied on indoctrination
  • Party leaders lectured workers and peasants on the ideals of communism
  • The State supported youth groups and used them as training grounds for future party members
rule maintaing power
Rule: Maintaing Power
  • The government controlled all education from nursery school to the university
  • School children learned the virtues of the Communist Party
  • They party also set up youth programs called Komsomols
rule maintaining power3
Rule-Maintaining Power
  • Soviet newspapers and radio broadcasts glorified the achievements of Communism and Stalin
  • Soviet Realism was an artistic styles that praised Soviet way of life
rule maintaining power4
Rule: Maintaining Power
  • Restrictions were set on paintings in that they could only portray political figures and exemplary workers in factories and in the fields.
  • Literature was also censored and authors could only write their novels on a limited amount of themes that were considered permissible by Stalin. 
rule maintaining power5
Rule: Maintaining Power
  • Film
    • Lenin’s idea that film was “the art of the 20th century” and that it should be used as a propaganda medium. Stalin strongly agreed.
    • He built hundreds of theatres across the country and used film as a form of his propaganda.
    • Made sure that all films glorified his policies
    • He also made sure that the movies showed how “happy” the Russian people were with their regime and him as their leader.
rule maintaining power6
Rule: Maintaining Power

Censorship

  • Stalin would not tolerate individual creativity that threatened conformity
  • Government controlled all newspapers, motion pictures, radio and other sources of information
weapons of totalitarianism
Weapons of Totalitarianism

Religious Persecution

  • Communists aimed to replace religious teachings with the ideals of Communism
  • The Russian Orthodox Church was the main target of persecution
  • Roman Catholics and Jews were also persecuted
impact foreign policy
Impact- foreign policy
  • Rivaled with Western allies for world influence
  • Convinced China to ally with them in communist ways under Mao Zhedong
  • Eastern Europe and Eastern Germany was under Stalin’s rule
  • Stalin forced seized power in Czechoslovakia
  • Backed communist parties in Italy, France and Vietnam, and supported North Korea’s communist dictatorship
  • In the 1940s, US sympathy dropped, and thus the Cold War began.
impact cold war
Impact- cold war
  • USA and USSR both believed that they held the key to the future of the human race
  • Stalin could not forgive US and Britain for helping the Whites against the Bolsheviks
  • He believed that they delayed D-Day so that Nazis could destroy Russia
  • Stalin wanted to turn countries communist, (eastern european) and US wanted to stop him
  • Fulton Speech and Marshall Plan went against what was agreed upon at the Yalta conference (buffer states) but Marshall took an aggressive stance against Stalin
  • Cold war started with Berlin Blockade. Then, they started competition for world domination
bibliography
bibliography
  • “A  Cold War 1945-63." Cold War 1945-63. 06 Jan. 2013 http://www.johndclare.net/Basics_ColdWar.htm.
  • "Life in USSR under Stalin." History Learning Site. 06 Jan. 2013 <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Stalins%2520Russia.htm>.
  • McCauley, Martin. The Stalin file. London: Batsford, 1979.
  • Simmonds, George W. "Joseph Stalin." Joseph Stalin. 06 Jan. 2013 <http://www.davidstuff.com/historical/stalin.htm>.
  • "Stalin's Russia." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation. 06 Jan. 2013 <http://library.thinkquest.org/C0112205/stalinsrussia.html>.
  • Tucker, Robert C. . Stalin in power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992.