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PIA 2528 PowerPoint Presentation

PIA 2528

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PIA 2528

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  1. PIA 2528 Local Government, Governance and Civil Society

  2. Governance, an Overview of Issues • Basic Terms: The Environment of Development (Review) • Governance • Manner in which the state is created, modified or overthrown • Local Government • Primary unit of government that has both political leadership and bureaucratic structures • Civil Society • Associations and organizations that are beyond the clan and the family and short of the state (does not include state organs or for profit sector)

  3. Institutional Legacy- Discussion: Harrison and Huntington, Culture Matters • Verona Benjamin • Ida Bormentar • Ali Ashraf • Stephenie Schell • Lindsay Wood • Anh Ninh • Sarah Tylka • Chunrong Chen • Laura Meixell (Questions to Panel)

  4. Institutional Legacy • Richard Reeves, Peshawar • Stephanie Schell, Laura Meixell • Stanley Karnow, Vietnam, Philipines • Chunrong Chen, Stephenie Schell • Graham Greene, Lawless Roads • Sarah Tilka, Ali Ashraf, Anh Ninh • Picard, Various • Verona Benjamin, Ida Bormentar, Lindsay Wood, Sarah Tilka

  5. The Nature of Local Government • Part of the Institutional State • Based on Devolution of Authority • Defines Participation • Links Governance to Civil Society

  6. Forms of Local Government • Concept: Transfer of authority to a lower level of government • Intermediate Government (s) • Primary Unit of Government: Lowest level that carries a bureaucracy with it

  7. Historical Legacy • Imperial and Colonial Impact: The Dilemma of the Local State

  8. Theme: Institutional Development and History of State Civil Society • Allen, “Plain Tales,” and “Dark Continent” • Orwell, “Burmese Days” • Lindsay Wood • Sara Tilka • Stephenie Schell • Ali Ashraf • Laura Meixell

  9. French Colonial System French National Assembly (Nominal African Reps) Ministry of Overseas Affairs Governor-General (West Africa-Dakar) Governor (Guinea- Conakry) Commandant District Chief Sub-Chief

  10. Tribal Secretary and Clerks Tribal Treasury Tribal Court Tribal Police Tribal Council British Colonial System Parliament (No Rep.) Secretary of State for Colonies (Dominions) or India Governor / High Commissioner* Regional / Divisional Commissioner District Commissioner District Officer Chief Sub-Chief Headman * Governor-General / High Commissioner with Resident Commissioners in Bechuanaland, Basutoland and Swaziland under Dominions Office

  11. Reformed British Administration Prime Minister (UK) Colonial Office London Parliament Dar es Salaam EXECO LEGCO Governor / Governor Secretary Secretariat MED WORKS EDUC AGRIC Kilimanjaro Province PEO Provincial Commissioner DEO Para-Chief District Commissioner Moshi Sub-Chief Headmen SAA MOJA Village

  12. Traditional Administration &Governance Traditional Systems & Parallel Rule National Systems Paramount Chief (King) Advisors (Native Councils) Sub-Chiefs Village Meeting Place Headmen Judicial System

  13. Traditional Administration &Governance Traditional Systems & Parallel Rule Imperial Systems King King’s Representative Chief Inner Council Outer Council Meeting Place Judicial System King’s Representative Sub-Chief

  14. Traditional Administration &Governance Assimilation vs. Indirect Rule • Assimilation: replacement of traditional authorities by soldiers • Chief as government official • Façade of Direct Rule • Grassroots similarity • Indirect Rule and “Tribal Administration” • Legal / Rational Model • Modification of Tradition • Training of tribal administrator

  15. Coffee Break • Fifteen Minutes

  16. Historical Legacy • General Patterns: Linked to Cultural Sub-Nationalism • Unique Cultural Patterns: Differ from Region to Region (eg. Middle East: Religious Parallel Governance Organizations • What are the Universals of Local Governance

  17. Governance and Civil Society • Wenfu- “Peddler’s Family” • Chunwrong Chen • Ali Ashraf • Lindsay Wood • Isabel Allenda- “Clarissa” • Anh Ninh

  18. The Nature of the Municipality • The Primary Unit of Government • Anglo-American- Town separate from country (County) • Continental Europe- Integration of Town and County • One of these two patterns exported overseas

  19. What Local Government Does- Basic Services • Primary Roads • Water • Waste Removal • Primary Education • Basic Health • Basic Energy Supplies

  20. Services Depend Upon- • Fiscal/budget allocation- taxes, user fees and transfers • Planning- strategic priorities • Managing- implementation • Personnel- Access to skilled professionals • Community Trust

  21. Distinctions: • Local state vs. Local Government • Functional vs. Territorial Control • Devolution- Urban vs. Rural • Subsidiarity- • higher units should not do what can be done by lower units

  22. Has local Government Failed? • Implementation and Administrative P roblems • Skills Shortages • Absence of Revenue • The Need for Institutional Training • International Donors and the Training Agenda

  23. Has local Government Failed? • Failure to make a Needs Assessment • Bridging Training vs. the Synthetic Mode of Thought • Local Government- Urban vs. Rural Needs

  24. Local Government and Development? • How Developmental Is Local Government: • We Need Assess Local Government Comparatively in light of Case Histories Readings.

  25. Decentralization Issues 1. Democracy and decentralization 2. Critiques of indirect Democracy 3. Decentralization and NGOs (Are NGOs dangerous?) 4. Decentralization and ethnic and regional conflict- the dangers of decentralization

  26. Decentralization Issues 5. The dichotomy: Communal/municipal models vs. urban/rural governance: towns and counties. Problem of urban bias 6. Decentralization as a failure-Issues: • a. financial limitations • b. local government staff: "bush postings." • c. community distrust

  27. Specialized Developmental Functions • Planning and Land Use Patterns • Issues- Ownership and distribution. • Land- its use and access to water. At the core of grass roots development in the rural areas

  28. Regional Patterns: The Institutional Legacy (Readings) • Break into Groups for Fifteen Minutes • Identify FOUR regional patterns of Institutionalized Governance, Local Governance and Civil Society • Identify the (reading) source of pattern

  29. Regional Patterns: The Institutional Legacy (Readings) • Southeast (and South) Asia • Lindsay Martin Wood • Chunrong Chen

  30. Regional Patterns: The Institutional Legacy (Readings) • South Asia • Ali Ashraf • Laura Meixell • Stephanie Schell

  31. Regional Patterns: The Institutional Legacy (Readings) • Central America and the Caribbean • Verona Benjamin • Anh Ninh

  32. Regional Patterns: The Institutional Legacy (Readings) • Africa • Ida Bomentar • Sarah Tylka

  33. Summary Discussion • What if anything have we learned about Governance, Local Government and Civil Society?