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PIA 3090. Comparative Public Administration. Historical Models, “Contemporary Models” and Socio-Economic Change. Week 3. Presentations. “Golden Oldies” Literary Maps. Overview. The Public Sector and the Economy Debates Over Development Management

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pia 3090

PIA 3090

Comparative Public Administration

  • “Golden Oldies”
  • Literary Maps
  • The Public Sector and the Economy
  • Debates Over Development Management
  • The European Model, North Atlantic Unity and Japan
  • Comparative Public Administration Issues
the public sector and the economy
The Public Sector and the Economy


Karl Marx- The Other German-

Source of ideas about the developmental state. Marx as a Social Scientist not an Ideologue. The contemporary of Max Weber

karl marx another five minutes
Karl Marx: Another Five Minutes

a.. Original Marxian views- State as the instrument of the ruling classes

b. The dialectic and Historical Materialism

c. Model: (John Armstrong- The Conservative Marxist)







class conflict four epochs
Class Conflict: Four Epochs





e. Functionaries as the petty bourgeoisie

f. Communism- state and the bureaucracy whither away

command economy revised by lenin
Command Economy- Revised by Lenin
  • Under socialism, government, the bureaucracy should manage the economy
  • The development of an elaborate national planning system
  • Keynes- Failure of market
command economy
Command Economy
  • The debate: Keynesianism and European Socialism (the Rose)- How much is this part of Command Economy Framework? (Guy Peters)
  • Development Administration: Command Economics in the Third World? (Heady, Riggs vs. Vincent and Eleanor Ostrom)
debate over the economy
Debate over the Economy

1. The International Contemporary State: Continental Europe vs. the U.S. or the U.K.

2. Adam Smith, "the hidden hand" and Classical Economics- An Anglo-Saxon View

3. Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union: Command Economy (whole or part)

continental europe
Continental Europe
  • Counter-influence of St. Simonism- an interventionist view (See John Armstrong).
  • “the era of abundance could be attained certainly and quickly. The guaranteed means were applications of science and technology to unrestricted mastery of nature.”

Count de Saint-Simon


social democracy
Social Democracy
  • The Rose
  • Socialism and the Rise of Labor in Europe
  • The Second International
unification of the north atlantic 1930s 1970s the primacy of keynesianism
Unification of the North Atlantic- 1930s-1970s- The Primacy of Keynesianism

1. Monetary Policy

2. Fiscal Policy

3. Wage and Price controls

the functions of government under keynesian control
The Functions of Government under Keynesian Control

1. Traditional- police and law and order

2. National Defense

3. Social Services- Education and Health and Welfare

4. Resource Mobilization

the functions of government under keynesian control continued
The Functions of Government under Keynesian Control- Continued

5. Economic Growth generation

6. LDCs and Modernization Theory: Agraria vs. Industria (Turner and Holm)

7.The challenge of Public Choice, rationalism and the University of Chicago School: Neo-Orthodoxy- less influence outside of the Anglo-Saxon world


Ten Minute Break

prologue two quotes
Prologue: Two quotes:
  • "There are several ways in which the government has influenced the structure of Japan's special institutions."[1]
  • "What is lawful and therefore is unlawful, depends on the culture and the country in question."[2]

[1] Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982), p. 14.

[2] Robert Klitgaard, Controlling Corruption (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), p. 3.

japan and ministry of international trade and industry miti
Japan and Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)
  • Asian Model
  • Corporatist- Inter-meshing of state and Private Sector
  • Management (not Political) Focus
  • Growth and Export
  • Model for Asian Tigers
ministry of international trade and industry
Ministry of International Trade and Industry

Block 10, Government Offices Complex, Jalan Duta,50622 KL, MalaysiaTel no: 603-6203 3022Fax no: 603-6201 2337Email:webmiti@miti.gov.my

Fred Warren Riggs, 90, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, professor emeritus of political science, passed away on February 9, 2008
riggs life
Riggs Life

Professor Riggs was born in Kuling, China on July 3, 1917, the son of agricultural missionary parents Charles H. and Grace (Frederick) Riggs.  He attended Nanking University, 1934-35.

comparative public administration issues
Comparative Public Administration Issues

a. The politics-administration dichotomy

b. Environmental and cultural factors are important. Ecology as an issue

c. Bureaucracy as a Negative? Keep government out of people's lives


d. Comparative as a method- structural-functionalist

e. Systemic influence on the individual- role definition, socialization and development of organizations vs. institutions

development administration c a g focus on comparative and development administration bad reputation
Development Administration: C.A.G.- Focus on comparative and development administration. Bad reputation
  • Foundations and CAG- chalets in Italy to discuss administrative and political development
  • US AID and Universities- 3 out of every 4 dollars never left the U.S. Now .93 never leaves.
  • Post-Vietnam and Iran
cag contined
CAG Contined
  • NIPAs, staff colleges and IDMs spring up all over Africa and Asia
  • After 1975/80- Foundations pulled the plug
  • CAG End of Ford grant, 1974
  • Post-Vietnam syndrome: Withdrawals, Ayatollas, now nine-one-one
  • End of Development as a consensus

Northern Tier goal

theory civil society vs state
THEORY: Civil Society vs. State


John D. Montgomery vs. Milton Esman

end of macro approach
End of Macro-Approach

1.The Macro Approach: No Longer In Vogue (except with Ferrel Heady)

a. Systems building from Almond to Riggs

b. Almond's functions and Easton's black boxes

c. Theme- Look at common functions- focus on INSIDE processes of executive government

end of macro approach1
End of Macro-Approach

2. Things often done by different structures and processes

Key:- Who makes rules

- who carries out, implements

3. Critics: Lack of systems level theory

the situation in 1983 modified traditional approach a micro and meso level approach
The Situation in 1983:Modified "traditional Approach"- A Micro and Meso level approach

a. Most like an "orthodoxy" of public administration

b. Comparative Study of:

1. Parts of the System- budgeting, personnel, inter-governmental relations, policy process

2. Or whole systems- Britain vs. France, U.S. vs. Russia, Botswana vs. Tanzania- Not Comparative

middle range theory
Middle Range Theory:

a. Problem- largely non-theory

b. Focus on specific relationships: eg. bureaucracy and political and moral variables within a country

c. Mostly case studies- Egypt, Botswana, the U.S. All the same method. "The Case Study"

the situation in 1989
The Situation in 1989

c. Often turns out to be very specific: i.e. focused institutions

1. Ombudsman

2. Auditor General

3. Territorial Governor as rep. of national authority- the Prefectoral system

d. The Problem: Comparative studies of institutions are very expensive-run out of money/go back to case studies

from 1989 2001
From 1989-2001
  • End of Cold War
  • Application of Structural Adjustment to Socialist Countries
  • September 11
  • Democracy and Governance
sica the current generation public private partnerships
SICA- The Current Generation: Public-Private Partnerships

Jennifer Brinkerhoff: George Washington University

2001 present


Debate about “Whole of Government

  • Public-Private Partnerships
  • Contracting Out
  • Three D’s: Diplomacy, Defense and Development
mock question
Mock Question

According to Johnson, "There are several ways in which the government has influenced the structure of Japan's special institutions."[1] Assess the Asian Model from a Comparative Public Management Perspective. What Socio-Economic Systems does Chalmers Johnson identify? How do they relate to the state? How has government grown according to Peters?

[1] Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982), p. 14.