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ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa Beyond Primary Education: Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa. Session 4A: Extending Basic Education, Expanding Secondary Education: Governance and Policy Issues

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Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Session 4A: Extending Basic Education, Expanding Secondary Education: Governance and Policy Issues

Extending Basic Education to include Lower Secondary Education, while simultaneously addressing the Quality Imperative

Presenter: Dr. Pap Sey

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Problem statement - issues & obj.

  • Access & Equity: Low enrolment rates, especially between regions, and inequitable distribution of educational services and resources

  • Quality: Imbalance between access and ‘quality’

  • Structure:6-3-3 school system characterised by low mastery levels and about 40% pushed out due to inadequate secondary school places

  • Policy: Pursuit of national objectives, universal basic education and the EFA Goals led to policy shifts and the ‘expanded vision of BE’.

  • Objective: To examine the system and share the Gambian experience with others.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Research methodology

  • Context The Gambia: West African country,

  • with a population of approx. 1.5 million

  • - More than 10 yrs of the expanding basic

  • education to 9 yrs excluding pre-school years;

  • school and management systems restructured;

  • curricular reviews; huge investments; teacher

  • education programmes revisited, etc.

  • Desk review of policies, studies, reports, etc. in addition to a questionnaire administered to teachers, parents and the public

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Main results

  • There appears to be a preference for the 6-3-3- system to the 9-3-3- system, possibly due to resentment of the automatic promotion of students (G1-9).

  • The perception is that the curriculum is overloaded but responsive to stakeholder needs and prepares students for life both within and outside The Gambia.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Main results contd
Main results contd.

  • The effective delivery of the curriculum by teachers is in question, which has far-reaching implications (for content/teacher performance/teacher disposition/teacher education, etc.).

  • Attempts at providing quality education are perceived to be more genuine/substantial after the ‘expansion’ than before.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Main lessons learned

  • Political will is key to success, as challenges are enormous vis-à-vis inputs and processes.

  • Popular participation and continuous sensitisation are crucial to earn public confidence.

  • Examination and assessment mechanisms tend to lend credence to school systems.

  • External support, community participation and school internal efficiency measures must complement one another.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Main lessons learnt contd
Main lessons learnt contd.

  • Policy dialogue and formulation must be sufficiently participatory, and educational reforms require maximum stakeholder involvement at every stage.

  • Establishing a unified national education system could have a crucial impact nationally (e.g., integration of the Madrassa curriculum with the conventional curriculum has contributed in boosting enrolment at the lower basic level in The Gambia).

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa

Beyond Primary Education:

Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa

Conclusions: Main messages

  • Policy option: The expansion, and effective provision, of quality basic education which includes lower secondary is the way forward.

  • Learning achievement: Teacher education, deployment and utilisation for effective learning is a major challenge.

  • Quality:Quality issues will have to be endlessly addressed, given that ‘education’ and the contexts for its provision are fluid and evolutionary.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Conclusions main messages
Conclusions: Main messages

  • Leadership: Reform successes may hinge on sound leadership and policies matched by appropriate and implementable strategies by all stakeholders/parties.

  • Governance: Within the framework of the expanded vision of BE, a less bureaucratic and less centralised education system, with empowered governing bodies at various levels, may fair better than a traditional, centralised system.

  • Resources: Support from funding agencies makes a HUGE difference, especially when aligned with the national plan(s) of the receiving country.

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education


Session 4a extending basic education expanding secondary education governance and policy issues

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Beyond Primary Education: Challenges of and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in AfricaAssociation for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)Biennale 2008 on Post-Primary Education