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EDUCATION System in Pakistan

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  1. EDUCATION System in Pakistan 5 December , 2008 1

  2. Contents PART - I • Constitution of Pakistan • Organization & Functions PART – II • Education Scenario • Financing • Education Policy • Other Programmes 2

  3. Constitution of Pakistan 3

  4. Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 – Article 37-b “The State shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period” Concurrent Legislative List: Curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centres of excellence, standard of education & Islamic education 4

  5. Functions and Organizations 5

  6. Major Functions of Ministry of Education Under Rules of Business 1973 • National policies, plans and programmes in education. Development of curricula and textbooks. • International aspects of education. • External examinations. Equivalence of degrees and diplomas. • Education in the Capital, Federally Administered Areas and AJ&K. • Financial assistance to educationists and men of letters. • National libraries. • Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. • Welfare of Pakistani students abroad and foreign students in Pakistan. 6 Continue…

  7. International exchange of students and teachers. • Foreign studies and training. International assistance. • Administration of Selective Federal educational institutions. Act No. X of 1976 provides for Federal supervision of curricula, textbooks and maintenance of standards of education. 7

  8. Millennium Development Goals (2001) 1. Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality 2. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality 8

  9. Functions of Administration Wing • Recruitment / appointments / promotions / transfers / grant of leave and pension to employees of main Ministry. • Rules and regulations for appointments, promotions, transfers etc. in main Ministry. • Maintenance of CR dossiers / ICP Charts / declaration of assets of officers of Ministry. • Disciplinary cases, Courts and Wafaqi Mohtasib cases. • Administrative and financial matters of Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education and Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO, Inter Board Committee of Chairmen, Islamabad. • Administrative matters / budget of Education Division. • Processing of release of funds and reconciliation of expenditure. 9 Continue…

  10. Functions of Administration Wing • Public Accounts Committee, Departmental Accounts Committee, Audit observations and Internal Audits. • Business relating to the Parliament / Cabinet and other organs of State. • Follow-up of President’s and Prime Minister’s Directives. • Inter-Ministerial and Intra-Ministerial Coordination. • Redressal of public grievances relating to Ministry and its organizations. • Matters pertaining to Pakistan Boys Scouts Association and Pakistan Girls Guides Association. • Presidential Awards i.e. Izaz-i-Kamal, Izaz-i-Fazeelat and Izaz-i-Sabqat etc. 10

  11. Functions of Policy & Planning Wing • Formulation of National Policies, Plans and Programs. • Process all development schemes (DDWP, CDWP, ECNEC). • Organize Inter-Provincial Education Secretaries/Ministers' meetings. • Prepare and monitor implementation of PSDP, Medium Term Plan (MTP) and Perspective Plan (PP). • Coordinate release of funds with Finance Div., Planning & Development Div. and AGPR. • Monitoring and evaluating education sector expenditures. • Assist and coordinate with Provincial Education, Finance and Planning Departments and District Governments to develop education sector plans. • Collection of statistics. 11 Continue…

  12. Functions of Policy & Planning Wing • Surveys and research studies. • Laison with development partners, within government and foreign donors and institutions. • Negotiate external economic assistance. • Prepare reports for media, budget speech, Economic Survey, year book etc. • Disseminate government policies, plans, and programs among all development partners and stakeholders. • Develop and Maintain Ministry’s website. • Oversee functioning of Academy for Educational Planning and Management. 12

  13. Functions of Curriculum Wing Curriculum Wing has been empowered through Federal Supervision of Curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976: To prepare or cause to be prepared [1] schemes of studies, [2] curricula, [3] manuscripts of textbooks and [4] schedules or strategy for their introduction in accordance with the education policy. To approve manuscripts of textbooks produced by other agencies before they are prescribed. To direct any person or agency to delete, amend or withdraw any portion, or the whole, of the curriculum, textbook or reference material. 13

  14. Functions of Projects Wing • Monitoring of projects. • Collaboration between FIUs & PIUs. • Interact with donor agencies/partners/stakeholders. • Evaluation of projects. • Management and release of project funds. • Implementation of various projects (GoP and foreign funded). 14

  15. Functions of Training Wing • Teacher Training and Education-In-service and Pre-service • Training Programmes in collaboration with donors agencies. • Science Olympiads and fairs in collaboration with Intel and universities etc. • Foreign and local scholarships. • International Cooperation and Cultural Exchange Programs. • Coordination / NOC to foreign students for admission in Pakistan on self finance. • Management of educational institutions in ICT. • Administrative, financial and legal matters of following institutions: • National Institute of Science and Technical Education, Islamabad • Federal Directorate of Education, Islamabad • Federal College of Education, Islamabad • Polytechnic Institute for Women, Islamabad 15 Continue…

  16. Functions of Training Wing • National Education Foundation, Islamabad • National Museum of Science and Technical Education, Lahore • Colombo Plan Staff College, Manila, Philippine • Technical Panel on Teacher Education, Islamabad • Dawood College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi • National College of Arts, Lahore • Sindh Madressah-tul-Islam, Karachi • Department of Libraries 16

  17. Functions of Monitoring & Evaluation Cell • To monitor induction of modern education in Madaris and the working of NGO’s. • To improve working of various organizations by suggesting measures based on performance. • To identify areas in which performance has been unsatisfactory, alongwith suggestions for improvement. • Keep Secretary / Minister informed on proper observance and implementation of procedures in various departments, particularly financial discipline. • Monitor and prevent losses due to fraud, misappropriation, pilferage, misuse and theft. • Keep Secretary / Minister informed of any activities prejudicial to the public interest and state of discipline and morale of students and employees. 17

  18. Functions of PMU PMU will closely oversee all stages and aspects of planning, resource mobilization, monitoring and coordination of all development projects including ESR Programme at Federal, Provincial and District level. Main Functions of PMU • Ensure timely release of funds to line departments. • Evolve Monitoring mechanism to gauge the out-puts/out-comes of development Projects. • To collect quarterly monitoring reports containing physical as well as financial achievements. • To ensure optimum and efficient utilization of the budget. • To evaluate achievement of programme objectives and targets. • To suggest and supervise remedial measures to improve effectiveness and efficiency of the programme. 18

  19. Pakistan Chairs Abroad • Quaid-e-Azam Distinguished Professorship at Columbia University, USA. • Quaid-e-Azam Studies Chair, University of California, Berkeley, USA. • Quaid-e-Azam Fellowship, Cambridge University, UK. • Allama Iqbal Fellowship, Cambridge University, UK. • Allama Iqbal Fellowship, Humboldt University, Germany. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Kazakh Albai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Almaty, Kazakhistan. 19 Continue…

  20. Pakistan Chairs Abroad • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Ankara University, Turkey. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Tehran University, Iran. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies, Tribhuvan University, Katmandu, Nepal. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Jordan University, Amman. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Peking University, Beijing, China. • Chair in Urdu and Pakistan Studies at Bapist University, Hong Kong. • Allama Iqbal Research chair in Urdu and Arabic, King Saudi University, Saudi Arabia. 20

  21. Area Study Centres For: • Central Asia, University of Peshawar, Peshawar. • South Asia, University of the Punjab, Lahore. • Far East and South East Asia, University of Sindh. • Europe, University of Karachi, Karachi. • Middle East and Arab Countries, University of Balochistan, Quetta. • Africa, North and South America, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. Pakistan Study Centres at Universities of Punjab, Sindh, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta & Q. A. University Shaikh Zayed Islamic Centres, University of Punjab, Karachi & Peshawar. 21

  22. Centres of Excellence • Psychology – Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. • Mineralogy – University of Balochistan, Quetta. • Analytical Chemistry – University of Sindh, Jamshoro. • Water Resources Engineering – University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore. • Arts & Design – Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro. • Marine Biology – University of Karachi, Karachi. • History and Culture – Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. • Molecular Biology – University of the Punjab, Lahore. • Gender Studies – Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad. • Geology – University of Peshawar, Peshawar. • Physical Chemistry – University of Peshawar, Peshawar. • Solid State Physics – University of the Punjab, Lahore. 22


  24. Human Development Index Source: Human Development Reports, 2005-06 & 2007-08, UNDP 24

  25. 67% 28% 67% 48% 58% 22% 67% 42% Literacy Rates 47% Pakistan: 55% Male: 67% Female: 42% 58% Literacy Definition (As in 1998 Census) 42% “The ability of a person who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter in any language” 55% 25 Sources: Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2006-07

  26. Educational Institutions by Level 26 Source: National Education Census 2006, GoP

  27. Institutions by Medium of Instruction 27 Source: National Education Census 2006, GoP

  28. No. of Institutions, Enrolment, Teaching Staff Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006 28

  29. Enrolment (Million) 29 Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006

  30. Deeni Madaris (Enrolment and Teaching Staff) Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006 30

  31. Drop-out Rates Dropouts 2004-05 Enrolment 1999-2000 Dropouts 1999-2000 Enrolment 2004-05 15.7% Class 11-12 0.708 0.111 Class 11-12 0.023 30.14% 0.076 1.479 Class 9-10 15.68% 0.232 0.294 1.311 22.41% Class 9-10 3.323 0.528 Class 6- 8 15.9% 0.753 3.074 24.5% Class 6- 8 14.829 12.480 6.614 Class 1-5 Class 1-5 4.641 53.0% 31.3% Total: 16.941 Million Total: 7.684 Million Total: 20.339 Million Total: 5.512 Million Total children eligible for enrolment (5-16): 44.340 million Children who did not enroll (5-16): 24.001 million 31 Source: 1. National Institute of Population Studies, 2004-05, 2. NEMIS, M/o Education.

  32. 81,633 (50%) 57,216 (35%) 53,481 (33%) 46,766 (29%) 9,776 (6%) No Boundary Wall No Drinking Water No Electricity No Toilet No Building Total schools upto Middle level 160,798 PAKISTAN Missing Facilities 32 Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006

  33. Public Schools in Union Councils 33

  34. Computer and Science Labs in High Schools 34

  35. Financing 35

  36. Financing (Rs. billion) * % of GDP including Private sector budget. Source: Demands for grants, Budget books of Govt. of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Balochistan & AJ&K. Federal Ministries/Divisions, District Governments. 36

  37. EDUCATION BUDGET AS % AGE OF GDP (2005-06): SOUTH ASIA Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008 37

  38. Education Policy 38

  39. Challenges • Weakened Governance • Fragmentation • Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier Relationships • Poor Quality of Teachers & Managers • Quality of curriculum, textbooks & exams • Low level of literacy • Out of school children • Dropouts • Public Private Partnership • In-adequate financing • Gender Equity • Poor monitoring & evaluation • Imbalance in primary, middle & secondary schools • Inconvenient school location 39

  40. SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY • Universal and Free Primary and Secondary Education • Promotion of Equity • Minimum National Standards • Relevance to Labour Market • Sector Planning • Financial allocation of 7% of GDP by 2018 • Encourage Private sector • Link Allocations to Definition of Free Education • Improve Planning, Management and Implementation Capacity • Donor Harmonisation • Overcoming Fragmented Governance 40 Continue…

  41. Bridging the Public Private Divide • Improved Examination System • Introduction of Early Childhood Education (3-5 years) & inclusive education. • Achieve the MDG goals. • All Primary schools shall be upgraded to Middle level • Well developed plan for expanding school facilities. • High priority to reducing drop out rates • Improved school environment • Career Counselling at higher secondary level • Develop national literacy curriculum • Enhance qualifications for employment as teachers 41 Continue…

  42. Pre-service & in-service teacher training • Accreditation and certification of teachers • Merit based teacher recruitment, professional development, promotions & postings • Curriculum development • Competitive publishing of textbooks and learning materials • District Education Boards to be established for managing schools • Separate management & academic cadres 42

  43. 1. Policy Reforms Undertaken i. Highlights of New Scheme of Studies: ‘Islamiat’ as an integrated subject in Classes I-II. Full-fledged subject from Classes III to XII. ‘Ethics’ for non-Muslims. Advanced ‘Islamic Studies’ in Classes IX-XII as an elective subject. General Science compulsory from Classes IV-VIII. Pakistan Studies compulsory upto Class-X. Advance Pakistan Studies as Elective for Classes XI & XII. 43 Continue…

  44. Highlights of New Scheme of Studies e. History, Geography compulsory in Classes VI-VIII. Includes history of sub-continent upto 1947. Post 1947 in Pak Studies. • Computer Literacy compulsory for Classes VI-VIII. ‘Computer Science’ elective subject in Classes IX-X and a Group in Class XI-XII. g. Choice of Arabic / Other Languages, Drawing, Technology, Home Economics, Agriculture in Classes VI to VIII. h. Medical Technology Group (6 subjects) in Classes XI & XII. 44

  45. ii. Review of Curriculum: • Curriculum being updated in view of new Scheme of Studies, challenges of modern world and job market. • Curriculum for 24 core subjects notified. Implementation from 2009. Total subjects 81. 45

  46. iii. New Textbook Policy: Main features are: • improved quality of education through quality textbooks at affordable prices, • competitive publishing of textbooks by public & private publishers, • textbook boards will become facilitating & regulating authorities. Will approve textbooks. • controversial material (cultural, religious, ethnic) shall not be included in textbooks. 46

  47. iv. National Education Assessment System (NEAS) • to improve quality of education at elementary level. • to develop capacity in education assessment. • to measure learning achievements of students in grades IV and VIII. • Based on test results, education system being rehashed. 47

  48. v. Examination System: • Centralized Examination System. • Question papers will have 3 parts: • 20% objective. • 50% short answers. iii. 30% descriptive answers. • Choice reduced to 33%. • Papers based on curriculum, not textbooks. • Teachers being trained to prepare children for new pattern. c. Grace marks reduced from 11 to 3 in max of 2 subjects. 48

  49. vi. Access to Education • Free education and textbooks up to secondary level. • To promote girls' education, future primary schools to be co-education with female teachers only. • Stipends to girl students at Middle level. 49

  50. vii. Governance Reforms • Inter-Provincial Education Ministers' (IPEM) Conference, for uniformity at national level. • Colleges & Technical education schools withdrawn from Districts and placed under Provinces. • Introduction of Prep (ECE) Class. • Regulatory Authority for private educational institutions in Islamabad. • Uniform academic session from 2009. 50 Continue…