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SOCIOLOGY Richard T. Schaefer. 16. Education. 16. Education. Sociological Perspectives on Education Schools as Formal Organizations Social Policy and Education. Sociological Perspectives on Education. Functionalist View. Manifest functions include: Transmission of knowledge

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16 education
16. Education
  • Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Schools as Formal Organizations
  • Social Policy and Education
sociological perspectives on education
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Functionalist View
  • Manifest functions include:
    • Transmission of knowledge
    • Bestowal of status
  • Latent functions include:
    • Transmitting culture
    • Promoting social and political integration
    • Maintaining social control
    • Serving as agent of change
sociological perspectives on education4
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Functionalist View
    • Transmitting Culture
  • Exposing young people to existing beliefs, norms, and values of their culture
  • Promoting Social and Political Integration
    • Common identity and social integration fostered by education contribute to societal stability and consensus
sociological perspectives on education5
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Functionalist View
  • Maintaining Social Control
    • Schools teach students punctuality, discipline, scheduling, and responsible work habits, and how to negotiate through a bureaucratic organization
  • Serving as an Agent of Change
    • Schools serve as meeting ground where people can share distinctive beliefs and traditions
sociological perspectives on education6
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Conflict View
  • Education is an instrument of elite domination
  • Schools socialize students into values dictated by the powerful
sociological perspectives on education7
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Conflict View
    • The Hidden Curriculum
    • Standards of behavior deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schools
  • Credentialism
    • An increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field
sociological perspectives on education8
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Conflict View
    • Bestowal of Status
  • Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation
  • Schools can reinforce class differences by putting students in tracks

Correspondence Principle: schools promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and perpetuate social class divisions from one generation to the next

Tracking: practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on basis of test scores and other criteria

sociological perspectives on education9
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Conflict View
    • Treatment of Women in Education
  • The U.S educational system long characterized by discriminatory treatment of women
sociological perspectives on education10
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Conflict View
    • Treatment of Women in Education
  • In 20th century, sexism in education included:
    • Stereotypes in textbooks
    • Pressure on women to study traditional women’s subjects
    • Unequal funding for men’s and women’s athletic programs
    • Employment bias for administrators and teachers
sociological perspectives on education11
Sociological Perspectives on Education
  • Interactionist View
  • Labeling and self-fulfilling prophecy suggest if we treat people in particular ways, they may fulfill our expectations.

Teacher-Expectation Effect: impact of teacher expectations and their large role on student performance

sociological perspectives on education12
Sociological Perspectives on Education

Figure 16-1. Percentage of Adults Ages 25 to 64 Who Have Completed Higher Educations, Selected Countries, 2001

Sources: Bureau of the Census 2004a:851

sociological perspectives on education13
Sociological Perspectives on Education

Table 16-1. Sociological Perspectives on Education

schools as formal organizations
Schools as Formal Organizations
  • Weber noted five characteristics of bureaucracy:
    • Division of labor
    • Hierarchy of authority
    • Written rules and regulations
    • Impersonality
    • Employment based on technical qualifications
  • Bureaucratization of Schools
schools as formal organizations15
Schools as Formal Organizations
  • Teachers’ academic assignments have become more specialized
    • Still must control social order
  • 20% of new teachers quit within 3 years
  • Fewer students choose teaching as career due to perceived low income
  • Teachers: Employees and Instructors
schools as formal organizations16
Schools as Formal Organizations
  • Homeschooling
  • More than 1.6 million children homeschooled
    • Good alternative for children with ADHD and LD
    • Lacks universal uniform standards from state to state
    • Research shows homeschooled children score higher on standardized tests
    • Some theorist cite lack of social involvement as problem with home schooling
social policy and education
Social Policy and Education
  • No Child Left Behind Program
    • The Issue
  • In 2001, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) enacted by Congress
  • By mid 2005, Utah threatened to opt our
  • 37 other states demanded major changes
social policy and education18
Social Policy and Education
  • No Child Left Behind Program
    • The Setting
  • Schools locally run and finances with some federal and state aid
  • 1990’s establish national educational standards
  • By mid 2005, Utah threatened to opt our
  • 37 other states demanded major changes
    • States insist they require more federal funds
social policy and education19
Social Policy and Education
  • No Child Left Behind Program
    • Sociological Policy
  • Validity: the degree to which a scale or measure truly reflects the phenomenon under study
  • Reliability: extent to which a measure provides consistent results
  • Reliability and validity of tests are major issues in controversy of NCLB
social policy and education20
Social Policy and Education
  • No Child Left Behind Program
    • Policy Initiatives
  • Educational reformers have yet to find solution that fits all schools in all states
  • Many educators see NCLB as their best hope