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SOCIOLOGY Richard T. Schaefer

SOCIOLOGY Richard T. Schaefer

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SOCIOLOGY Richard T. Schaefer

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  1. SOCIOLOGYRichard T. Schaefer 16 Education

  2. 16. Education • Sociological Perspectives on Education • Schools as Formal Organizations • Social Policy and Education

  3. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Functionalist View • Manifest functions include: • Transmission of knowledge • Bestowal of status • Latent functions include: • Transmitting culture • Promoting social and political integration • Maintaining social control • Serving as agent of change

  4. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Functionalist View • Transmitting Culture • Exposing young people to existing beliefs, norms, and values of their culture • Promoting Social and Political Integration • Common identity and social integration fostered by education contribute to societal stability and consensus

  5. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Functionalist View • Maintaining Social Control • Schools teach students punctuality, discipline, scheduling, and responsible work habits, and how to negotiate through a bureaucratic organization • Serving as an Agent of Change • Schools serve as meeting ground where people can share distinctive beliefs and traditions

  6. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Conflict View • Education is an instrument of elite domination • Schools socialize students into values dictated by the powerful

  7. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Conflict View • The Hidden Curriculum • Standards of behavior deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schools • Credentialism • An increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field

  8. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Conflict View • Bestowal of Status • Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation • Schools can reinforce class differences by putting students in tracks Correspondence Principle: schools promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and perpetuate social class divisions from one generation to the next Tracking: practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on basis of test scores and other criteria

  9. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Conflict View • Treatment of Women in Education • The U.S educational system long characterized by discriminatory treatment of women

  10. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Conflict View • Treatment of Women in Education • In 20th century, sexism in education included: • Stereotypes in textbooks • Pressure on women to study traditional women’s subjects • Unequal funding for men’s and women’s athletic programs • Employment bias for administrators and teachers

  11. Sociological Perspectives on Education • Interactionist View • Labeling and self-fulfilling prophecy suggest if we treat people in particular ways, they may fulfill our expectations. Teacher-Expectation Effect: impact of teacher expectations and their large role on student performance

  12. Sociological Perspectives on Education Figure 16-1. Percentage of Adults Ages 25 to 64 Who Have Completed Higher Educations, Selected Countries, 2001 Sources: Bureau of the Census 2004a:851

  13. Sociological Perspectives on Education Table 16-1. Sociological Perspectives on Education

  14. Schools as Formal Organizations • Weber noted five characteristics of bureaucracy: • Division of labor • Hierarchy of authority • Written rules and regulations • Impersonality • Employment based on technical qualifications • Bureaucratization of Schools

  15. Schools as Formal Organizations • Teachers’ academic assignments have become more specialized • Still must control social order • 20% of new teachers quit within 3 years • Fewer students choose teaching as career due to perceived low income • Teachers: Employees and Instructors

  16. Schools as Formal Organizations • Homeschooling • More than 1.6 million children homeschooled • Good alternative for children with ADHD and LD • Lacks universal uniform standards from state to state • Research shows homeschooled children score higher on standardized tests • Some theorist cite lack of social involvement as problem with home schooling

  17. Social Policy and Education • No Child Left Behind Program • The Issue • In 2001, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) enacted by Congress • By mid 2005, Utah threatened to opt our • 37 other states demanded major changes

  18. Social Policy and Education • No Child Left Behind Program • The Setting • Schools locally run and finances with some federal and state aid • 1990’s establish national educational standards • By mid 2005, Utah threatened to opt our • 37 other states demanded major changes • States insist they require more federal funds

  19. Social Policy and Education • No Child Left Behind Program • Sociological Policy • Validity: the degree to which a scale or measure truly reflects the phenomenon under study • Reliability: extent to which a measure provides consistent results • Reliability and validity of tests are major issues in controversy of NCLB

  20. Social Policy and Education • No Child Left Behind Program • Policy Initiatives • Educational reformers have yet to find solution that fits all schools in all states • Many educators see NCLB as their best hope