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MEXICO Introduction & Background PowerPoint Presentation
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MEXICO Introduction & Background

MEXICO Introduction & Background

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MEXICO Introduction & Background

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  1. MEXICOIntroduction & Background Environments to the Political System

  2. Population: 106 million Territory: 761,602 sq. miles (roughly size of U. S. – east of Mississippi River) Year of Independence: 1810 Year of Current Constitution: 1917 Head of State: President Felipe Calderon Hinojosa Head of Government: President Felipe Calderon Hinojosa Language: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuati, Zapotec, and other regional indigenous languages Religion: Nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6% Country Bio: Mexico

  3. Mexico: Basic Geography • Regions • South – more like Central America • North – along U.S. Border • Central Plateau (heartland)

  4. Caribbean Basin

  5. MEXICO

  6. Tenochtitlan • Present day Mexico City • The capital of the Aztec Empire founded in 1325 • Built on Lake Texcoco, divided into four zones • Aztec legend of the City and the coat of arms • One of the largest cities in the World

  7. Mexico City: Crown Jewel of Spanish Colonialism

  8. Instability follows Independence • Liberal-Conservative conflict • Destruction of economic infrastructure • Amerindians impoverished • Legitimacy of ruling elite weak

  9. Conflict with the United States: Mexico Loses 40% of its territory • Settling Texas with Gringos backfires • Mexican American War • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  10. More Nineteenth Century Instability • Defeat in Mexican war followed by more political chaos • French Intervention 1862-67 • Confusion of Liberal governments 1867-76

  11. Porfirio Díaz and the Científicos • Positivism as “catch-up” 1877-1910 • Dark side of “catch-up” • Concentration of land holdings • Exploitation of the labor force • Role of Foreigners • Emergence of generational strife

  12. Revolution and its aftermath • 1910 first of the great “social revolutions” that shook the world • In Mexico revolution originated with the ruling class • Anti-Porfirio Diaz and local bosses and landowners • Led by Francisco Madero • Huerta’s dictatorship & United States intervention • Descent into warlordism • Zapata • Pancho Villa • Venustiano Carranza and the Sonora elite

  13. INSTITUTIONALIZING THE REVOLUTION • Constitution of 1917 • Article 3 – free, universal, secular education • Article 27 subsoil belongs to state • Article 123 worker rights • No reelection of the president and the “deal” between Obregón and Calles

  14. Legitimating the Revolution: The Cardenas Upheaval Sonora Elite maintained control during the 1930s • But era of massive social and political upheaval • Alvaro Obregon & Plutarco Calles • Calles finds his match in Lazaro Cardenas

  15. Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940 • Encouraged urban workers and peasants to demand land and higher wages • Wave of strikes, protests, and petitions for breaking up large rural estates. • Most disputes settled by the government in favor of labor • Creation of large organizations for labor and peasants • Fundamentally reshaped political institutions • Presidency: primary institution of the political system • Sweeping powers but limited six year term • By 1940 more Mexicans included in the national political system

  16. Nationalization of Mexican Oil Fields

  17. Revolutionary Family COURTs THE AFFLUENT • AVILA CAMACHO (1940-46) approaches the private sector • Miguel Alemán (1946-52) • First civilian president since the revolution • Slowing social reform • Increased industrialization Miguel Alemán

  18. Revolutionary Family Modernizes Mexico • Cárdenas as godfather of the left • Alemán as godfather of the center • Institutionalization in structuring of the PRI • Labor sector • Peasant sector • Popular sector Paseo La Reforma: Mexico City

  19. PRI (Revolutionary Institutional Party) & The Era of Hegemonic Party Rule • Mexican Political system as oriented by Cardenas – Aleman • Remarkably durable • PRI would become the world’s longest continuously ruling party (with the fall of the Soviet Communist Party)

  20. Political decay undermines Hegemonic Party Rule • Political tensions increase in 1970’s • President Ordaz “dirty war” • Alledged execution of 700 enemies of the state • Economic roller-coaster • Good news: discovery of massive oil and natural gas resources • Collapsed and so did support for reform Chiapas rebellion