The Changing Yangtze Adam Nichols & Iain Palôt GA Study tour 2007 University of Surrey 29th March 2008
A sense of scale Origin Tanggula Mts. , Qinghai / Tibet border Mouth East China Sea Length 6,300 km (3,915 miles) Source elevation 5,042 m (16,542 ft) Basin area 1,800,000 km² (695,000 miles²) Avg. Discharge 34,000 m³/s (1,200,000 ft³/s)
The Yangtze Basin • Less than 1/5 of the nation’s territory • Feeds 1/3 of the nation’s population • 1/3 of the nation’s GDP. • 37% of China’s “freshwater” resources • 48% of China’s HEP potential • 53% of the country’s navigable waterway: the “Golden Waterway” connecting East, Central, and West China.
Average annual precipitation • Mean annual precipitation ranges from 23mm in the Northwest to 4000mm in the South.
The Chang Jiang’s “furnace cities” • Chongqing • Yichang • Wuhan • Nanjing • Shanghai
Furnace 1: Chongqing • The largest urban industrial city in the south western part of China • A major focus of Western Development Policy investment • “The megalopolis you’ve never heard of” • “ The Changjiang River
Chongqing’s population grows by “one Luxembourg” annually: approx 500,000
The confluence of the Chang Jiang (left) and the Jialing (right) at Chongqing
Chongqing’s first McDonald’s 2000 2008: there are 8 (Beijing has c100)
Changing Chongqing 1:Heavy industry/ engineering contributed >65% of the city’s GDP in 2006(The“Chicago of China”) • Transport Equipment 35.1 • Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals 7.0 • Electric & Hot Power Production & Supply 6.8 • Raw Chemicals and Chemical Products 5.9 • Smelting /Pressing of Non-Ferrous Metals 5.5 • Electric Equipment and Machinery 4.9 • Nonmetal Mineral Products 4.1 • Ordinary Equipment 4.1
State Owned Enterprises • Massive historical dependence on SOEs, especially military (PLA owned / run) in Chongqing • By 2006, 80% of its SOEs had ‘restructured’ to adapt to new market conditions (or close) • ‘Restructuring’ = running the enterprises on a profit / loss commercial basis and hence, more market orientated. It does not equate with ‘privatisation’. Most enterprises remain in state ownership and governance, even if listed on the stock exchange. • So many people are dependent on SOEs that profits from one enterprise can be used to support loss-makers.
Joint ventures:egs. in Chongqing • Ford / Mazda • Nokia (7 factories) • Iveco / Fiat • JL French aluminium diecastings • BP acetic acid plant • Cathay Pacific Pigment Hldgs (HK) – pesticides + chemicals Hong Kong is the greatest source of inward investment
In 2006 alone:car manufacturing grew by 76.5 %motorcycle output increased by 33.7 % Chongqing’s automotive driver
Productivity in Chinese Metropolitan regions: Population and GDP in Chinese Metropolitan Regions Source : OECD with data from Chreod, Ltd. China Metropolitan Region Database • Even if Shanghai was excluded from consideration as an exceptional case, Chongqing still would look below what could be expected
A Chongqing “bang bang man” in the “bamboo army” Rural registration Rudimentary education One of 100,000+ pole-carriers Married. Shares 3 bedroom flat with 3 other couples Former farmer. 2 children left with relatives 5.30am start at veg. market £1.50 for 12 hours work Loads are often heavier than himself Saves enough to clothe and pay for children’s schooling in his village.
11th 5 Year development plan 2006 – 10 priorities: • infrastructure construction (ctd.) • innovation to make municipal and local enterprises more competitive • To improve the balance of urban and rural development • To develop an environmentally friendly and energy efficient municipality • More “opening up”
Changing Chongqing 2 • Chongqing High-Tech Industrial Development Zone started 1991. By 2007, c13,500 enterprises employed c 200,000 • $8 billion of government investment in Xiyong Micro-electronic Park ; 30 km2 • 17 universities and 1000 research institutes (2006)
Growing urban-rural income gaps: need for improvements in rural development and urban-rural linkages Average rural and urban income in Chongqing Municipality Source: Chongqing Statistic Yearbook (2006)
As the water rises, what’s gone? • A public park there is ''not so much a park as a lull in the city. There are stunned bushes and exhausted flowers and brokenhearted patches of grass. But all of it is well cared for …The problem is the air, the coal dust that blankets the city. . . . Few things are more pathetic than a tree in Fuling, its leaves gray and dull as if it were just taken out of the attic.'‘ Peter Hessler, River Town Two Years on the Yangtse Pub. John Murray, 2001