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The Changing Yangtze. Adam Nichols & Iain Pal ô t GA Study tour 2007 University of Surrey 29 th March 2008. A sense of scale. Origin Tanggula Mts. , Qinghai / Tibet border Mouth East China Sea Length 6,300 km (3,915 miles)

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the changing yangtze

The Changing Yangtze

Adam Nichols & Iain Palôt

GA Study tour 2007

University of Surrey 29th March 2008

a sense of scale
A sense of scale

Origin Tanggula Mts. ,

Qinghai / Tibet border

Mouth East China Sea

Length 6,300 km (3,915 miles)

Source elevation 5,042 m (16,542 ft)

Basin area 1,800,000 km² (695,000 miles²)

Avg. Discharge 34,000 m³/s (1,200,000 ft³/s)

the yangtze basin
The Yangtze Basin
  • Less than 1/5 of the nation’s territory
  • Feeds 1/3 of the nation’s population
  • 1/3 of the nation’s GDP.
  • 37% of China’s “freshwater” resources
  • 48% of China’s HEP potential
  • 53% of the country’s navigable waterway: the “Golden Waterway” connecting East, Central, and West China.
average annual precipitation
Average annual precipitation
  • Mean annual precipitation ranges from 23mm in the Northwest to 4000mm in the South.
the chang jiang s furnace cities
The Chang Jiang’s “furnace cities”
  • Chongqing
  • Yichang
  • Wuhan
  • Nanjing
  • Shanghai
furnace 1 chongqing
Furnace 1: Chongqing
  • The largest urban industrial city in the south western part of China
  • A major focus of Western Development Policy investment
  • “The megalopolis you’ve never heard of”

The Changjiang River

slide22
Chongqing’s first McDonald’s 2000

2008: there are 8

(Beijing has c100)

slide32
Changing Chongqing 1:Heavy industry/ engineering contributed >65% of the city’s GDP in 2006(The“Chicago of China”)
  • Transport Equipment 35.1
  • Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals 7.0
  • Electric & Hot Power Production & Supply  6.8
  • Raw Chemicals and Chemical Products 5.9
  • Smelting /Pressing of Non-Ferrous Metals 5.5
  • Electric Equipment and Machinery 4.9
  • Nonmetal Mineral Products 4.1
  • Ordinary Equipment 4.1
state owned enterprises
State Owned Enterprises
  • Massive historical dependence on SOEs, especially military (PLA owned / run) in Chongqing
  • By 2006, 80% of its SOEs had ‘restructured’ to adapt to new market conditions (or close)
  • ‘Restructuring’ = running the enterprises on a profit / loss commercial basis and hence, more market orientated. It does not equate with ‘privatisation’. Most enterprises remain in state ownership and governance, even if listed on the stock exchange.
  • So many people are dependent on SOEs that profits from one enterprise can be used to support loss-makers.
joint ventures egs in chongqing
Joint ventures:egs. in Chongqing
  • Ford / Mazda
  • Nokia (7 factories)
  • Iveco / Fiat
  • JL French aluminium diecastings
  • BP acetic acid plant
  • Cathay Pacific Pigment Hldgs (HK) – pesticides + chemicals

Hong Kong is the greatest source of inward investment

in 2006 alone car manufacturing grew by 76 5 motorcycle output increased by 33 7
In 2006 alone:car manufacturing grew by 76.5 %motorcycle output increased by 33.7 %

Chongqing’s automotive driver

productivity in chinese metropolitan regions
Productivity in Chinese Metropolitan regions:

Population and GDP in Chinese Metropolitan Regions

Source : OECD with data from Chreod, Ltd. China Metropolitan Region Database

  • Even if Shanghai was excluded from consideration as an exceptional case, Chongqing still would look below what could be expected
a chongqing bang bang man in the bamboo army
A Chongqing “bang bang man” in the “bamboo army”

Rural registration

Rudimentary education

One of 100,000+ pole-carriers

Married. Shares 3 bedroom flat with 3 other couples

Former farmer. 2 children left with relatives

5.30am start at veg. market

£1.50 for 12 hours work

Loads are often heavier than himself

Saves enough to clothe and pay for children’s schooling in his village.

11 th 5 year development plan 2006 10 priorities
11th 5 Year development plan 2006 – 10 priorities:
  • infrastructure construction (ctd.)
  • innovation to make municipal and local enterprises more competitive
  • To improve the balance of urban and rural development
  • To develop an environmentally friendly and energy efficient municipality
  • More “opening up”
changing chongqing 2
Changing Chongqing 2
  • Chongqing High-Tech Industrial Development Zone started 1991. By 2007, c13,500 enterprises employed c 200,000
  • $8 billion of government investment in Xiyong Micro-electronic Park ; 30 km2
  • 17 universities and 1000 research institutes (2006)
growing urban rural income gaps need for improvements in rural development and urban rural linkages
Growing urban-rural income gaps: need for improvements in rural development and urban-rural linkages

Average rural and urban income in Chongqing Municipality

Source: Chongqing Statistic Yearbook (2006)

as the water rises what s gone
As the water rises, what’s gone?
  • A public park there is ''not so much a park as a lull in the city. There are stunned bushes and exhausted flowers and brokenhearted patches of grass. But all of it is well cared for …The problem is the air, the coal dust that blankets the city. . . . Few things are more pathetic than a tree in Fuling, its leaves gray and dull as if it were just taken out of the attic.'‘

Peter Hessler,

River Town

Two Years on

the Yangtse

Pub. John Murray, 2001

slide53

In February 2005, Huang Faxiang, director of the land resources administration of Fengdu county, was sentenced to death for skimming off $1.8 million in land sales revenues. More than a dozen other Fengdu officials have been convicted of lesser charges.

the three gorges
The Three Gorges

The satellite image of Three Gorges Dam

May, 2006

July,2000

cultural revolution
Cultural Revolution

All singing and dancing package for the tourist and yet it remains generally an unspoken subject in China!

Spice Girls?

Commune Buildings with quotes and instructions

crops grown
Crops grown

Sesame

Aubergines

Oranges &

Corn

Peanuts

technology
Technology

Biogas production

Old style briquette stove

Corn niblets

Ready for the Games!

slide68

And after a weary day’s fieldwork, what better way to unwind than with a communal foot massage. These are not smut-houses but as socially acceptable for relaxation as a drink and chat in a pub. Our Yichang hosts from the CPAFFC are in the background.

the wuhan furnace
The Wuhan Furnace
  • A city of 4m /7m in 3 parts: Wuchan, Hankow & Hanyang
  • Divided by Yangtze and its biggest tributary, the Han shui,
  • Hottest average temperature: 37.2C July
planned launches april 07 09
Planned launches April 07 - 09
  • Beijing-Benz: Chrysler Sebring = 2007
  • Beijing-Hyundai: Chinese developed car = 2009
  • Beiqi Futian (Beijing): passenger vehicle = 2009
  • BYD (Shenzhen): mini = 2008
  • BYD (Shenzhen): F3 station wagon = 2008
  • BYD (Shenzhen): F8 coupe = 2008
  • Chang’an (Chongqing): CV 8 2.0-lt = 2008
  • Chang’an (Chongqing): CV 10 = 2009
  • Chang’an-Ford (Chongqing): Ford New Fiesta = 2008
  • Chang’an-Mazda (Nanjing): Mazda 2 = 2007
  • Chang’an-Suzuki (Chongqing); Escudo = 2008
  • Changcheng (Baoding): 2.0lt passenger vehicle = 2009
  • Changcheng (Baoding): GWPeri = 2007
  • Changcheng (Baoding): Peri 4x4 = 2008
  • Changcheng (Baoding): Florid = 2008
  • Changcheng (Baoding): i7 (CH031) = 2008
  • Changcheng (Baoding): Coolbear = 2008
  • Changcheng (Baoding): Cowry = 2008
  • Changfeng Liebao (Yongzhou): CS 7 = concept
  • Changfeng Liebao (Yongzhou): M1A = 2008
  • Changfeng Liebao (Yongzhou): UU CT3 = concept
  • Dongfeng-Honda (Wuhan): New CR-V = 2007
  • Dongfeng-Citroën (Wuhan): Peugeot 307 hatchback = 2008
  • Dongfeng-Citroen (Wuhan): C2-CV = 2009
  • Dongfeng Yueda-KIA (Yangcheng): KIA SUV = 2008
  • Dongnan (Fuzhou): Mercedes Benz Vito, Vaneo en Sprinter = 2007
  • Dongnan (Fuzhou): Chrysler Grand Voyager= 2007
  • Dongnan (Fuzhou): Mitsubishi Zinger = 2007
  • Dongnan (Fuzhou): economy car = 2009
  • FAW Car (Changchun): Hongqi C601 (3rd type) = 2009
  • FAW Car (Changchun): Hongqi A502 = 2009
  • FAW Car (Changchun): Hongqi HQE = 2009
  • FAW VW (Changchun): Volkswagen Golf GTI = 2008
  • Guangzhou Auto: sedan = 2009
  • Guangzhou-Toyota: Yaris = 2008
  • Hafei (Haerbin) HF 3 = 2009
  • Huachen Zhonghua (Shenyang): M3 Coupe = 2007
  • Ji’ao (Gonow) (Taizhou): GA 6420 SUV = 2008
  • Ji’ao (Gonow) (Taizhou): GA 6350 Mini Van  = 2007
  • Jianghuai (Hefei): hatchback (A-class) = 2009
  • Jianghuai (Hefei): A4-size = 2009
  • Jiangling Landwind (Nanchang): X 8 (suv): 2008
  • Jiangling Landwind (Nanchang): new suv: 2009/2010
  • Jiangnan JN-X1 (Changsha): Fiat model: 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): LG-2 MPV = 2009
  • Jili (Ningbo): CG-1 = 2008
  • Jiili (Ningbo): FG-2 = 2009
  • Jili (Ningbo): GH-1 = 2009
  • Jili (Ningbo): LC-1 = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): LG-3 = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): CD-1= 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): LK-1 = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): KingKong II = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): Vision II = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): Beauty Leopard II = 2008
  • Jinhua Youngman (Jinan) saloon = 2009
  • Lifan (Chongqing): Mini = 2009
  • Lifan (Chongqing): 2-litre sedan = 2009
  • Lifan (Chongqing); MPV = 2009
  • Nanjing-Fiat: Linea = 2008
  • Nanjing-Fiat: Palio II = 2008
  • Nanqi Soyat (Wuxi): sedan = 2007
  • Nanqi MG (Nanjing): MG 5 = 2008
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S16 QQ5 = 2007
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S23 QQ SUV = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S24 QQ Coupe = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 sedan/ hatchback = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 D stationwagon = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13C Lei Fulwin2 = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 A2 Shooting Sport = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) F11 A8 sedan = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B12 A7 sedan= 2008
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B22 Tiggo 6 suv = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B23 A6CC = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P11 SUV = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P12 pickup = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q11 mini = 2008
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q21 = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Tiggo5 Lui = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Pickup = 2008
  • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): W2 = 2008
  • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): S161 = 2010
  • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): Ssanyong W200 = 2009
  • Shanghai-GM Wuling (Liuzhou): Chevrolet M3X = 2008
  • Shanghai Huapu: ME C-1 = 2009
  • Shanghai Huapu: London LTI Taxi = 2008
  • Shanghai-Volkswagen: VW China Mini = 2009
  • Shanghai-Volkswagen Olympia = 2008
  • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S7 MPV = 2008
  • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S8 = 2009
  • Tianjin-Toyota: RAV4 = 2007
  • Xinkai (Gaobeidian) Tianjiao sedan = 2009
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-A = 2008
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-B = 2009
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV = 2008
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) SUV = 2008
  • Zhongxing (Baoding) sedan = 2008/2009
slide77
Jili (Ningbo): LG-2 MPV = 2009
  • Jili (Ningbo): CG-1 = 2008
  • Jiili (Ningbo): FG-2 = 2009
  • Jili (Ningbo): GH-1 = 2009
  • Jili (Ningbo): LC-1 = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): LG-3 = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): CD-1= 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): LK-1 = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): KingKong II = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): Vision II = 2008
  • Jili (Ningbo): Beauty Leopard II = 2008
  • Jinhua Youngman (Jinan) saloon = 2009
  • Lifan (Chongqing): Mini = 2009
  • Lifan (Chongqing): 2-litre sedan = 2009
  • Lifan (Chongqing); MPV = 2009
  • Nanjing-Fiat: Linea = 2008
  • Nanjing-Fiat: Palio II = 2008
  • Nanqi Soyat (Wuxi): sedan = 2007
  • Nanqi MG (Nanjing): MG 5 = 2008
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S16 QQ5 = 2007
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S23 QQ SUV = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) S24 QQ Coupe = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 sedan/ hatchback = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 D stationwagon = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13C Lei Fulwin2 = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) A13 A2 Shooting Sport = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) F11 A8 sedan = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B12 A7 sedan= 2008
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B22 Tiggo 6 suv = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) B23 A6CC = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P11 SUV = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) P12 pickup = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q11 mini = 2008
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Q21 = 2009
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Tiggo5 Lui = concept
  • Qirui (Chery) (Wuhu) Pickup = 2008
  • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): W2 = 2008
  • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): S161 = 2010
  • Rongwei (Roewe) (Yizheng): Ssanyong W200 = 2009
  • Shanghai-GM Wuling (Liuzhou): Chevrolet M3X = 2008
  • Shanghai Huapu: ME C-1 = 2009
  • Shanghai Huapu: London LTI Taxi = 2008
  • Shanghai-Volkswagen: VW China Mini = 2009
  • Shanghai-Volkswagen Olympia = 2008
  • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S7 MPV = 2008
  • Shuanghuan (Shijiazhuang) S8 = 2009
  • Tianjin-Toyota: RAV4 = 2007
  • Xinkai (Gaobeidian) Tianjiao sedan = 2009
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-A = 2008
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV-B = 2009
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) MPV = 2008
  • Zhongshun (Shenyang) SUV = 2008
  • Zhongxing (Baoding) sedan = 2008/2009
infrastructure well bridges and boats really
Infrastructure, well bridges and boats really!

July 2007

2002

Jan 2008

Chaotianmen Bridge

which spans the Yangtze River in Chongqing, is double-decked, and has six car lanes running along the uppermost level.

slide80

Bridges at Wanxian

Bridge at Zhongxian

This is what a new one over the Little Three Gorges will look like

Work underway

the need has been to speed up transport and cross the river
The need has been to speed up transport and cross the river

Ro-ro downstream

Collier upstream

Waste paper being unloaded

Ship locks at the 3GD

Ro-ro unloading

slide82

New road to……

Deepwater port

Maglev goes very fast!

Phone lines in Shanghai

Newspapers are us

slide85
The reasons for prosperity in villagewas having the resources and the location to allow development

Coal

Pylon parts

Main street

Manhandling freshly galvanised parts

new rural reconstruction project village at xingguang near wuhan
New Rural Reconstruction Project Village at Xingguang near Wuhan

Final planned layout

Second phase underway but marked lack of ANY western style building technology

flooding june july 2007
Flooding June / July 2007

El Nino caused severe typhoons which penetrated as far as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, resulting in accelerated snow-melt.

70% of the basin’s annual rainfall falls in the 4 summer months anyway. The Typhoons brought extra intensity to the rainfall (300mm in 24 hours in some parts)

Meteorological and hydrological conditions similar to those for the 1998 floods.

250,000+ homes affected

slide91
Rats evacuated their lakeside dwellings and moved onto adjacent farmland, devouring crops.
  • Rats were caught in their millions and sent in refrigerated containers down to Guandong province (near Hong Kong) for the restaurant trade: Rat soup.
  • It is reported to taste very similar to chicken.
  • It was not on any of our menus, so we cannot vouch for that.
flood management in the middle and lower yangtze

Flood management in the middle and lower Yangtze

Storage & retardation basins: 40

Area: 11,866 km2

Cultivated land: 5,490 km2

Population: 5,686,000

Capacity: 63,700,000,000 m3

Reservoirs (Excl. 3G) 117

Capacity: 104,000,000,000 m3

Levees: 45,000 km

Return period pre-3G: 20 yrs

Return period post-3G 100 yrs

water quality
Water quality

Water pollution has worsened over the last ten years

1998 <20% of water quality along the Yangtze and tributaries was untreatable + undrinkable.

2005: 27.5% of water quality along the Yangtze and tributaries was untreatable + undrinkable.

2006: 30 billion tons of polluted water was dumped in the river; 50 percent more than in 1998.

Fertilizer runoff +

industrial runoff +

untreated sewage +

high temperatures=

algal bloom

water quality101
Water quality

Government principles:

Water saving before water transfer

Pollution control before water delivery

Environmental protection before water consumption

the nanjing furnace
The Nanjing Furnace

Nanjing

  • “Southern Capital” Ancient capital of six dynasties
  • Nanjing Chang Jiang Bridge, the first bridge to cross Chang Jiang to be built entirely by the Chinese in 1968. (but engineered by Russians before relations “broke down” in the 1960s as Chinese communism ploughed its own furrow)

Nanjing Changjiang Bridge

the newest furnace city
The newest Furnace city

Shanghai

  • The gateway to the Yangzte, straddling the Huangpu tributary just south of the Changjiang river’s mouth
  • China’s largest metropolis
  • “The mouth of the dragon”, whereas Chongqing……

The Bund and Huangpu River

slide111
On

Shanghai’s

Maglev

slide116
Welcome to

Thames Town

china s wealthiest city shanghai municipality 2006
China’s wealthiest cityShanghai Municipality 2006
  • Ave. urban per capita income: 22,808RMB
  • (Chongqing: 12,548RMB)
  • Ave rural income: 9,817 RMB
  • (Chongqing: 3,814 RMB)
thank you goodbye
Study Tour 2008

Mexico 27th July – 10th August

+ Guatemala extension option

Go to GA website and scroll down What’s new

谢谢 (Thank you)再见 (Goodbye)