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World Agricultural Outlook Board. GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY. Utilization of GIS Technology for Agrometeorological Applications. Robert Stefanski and Ray Motha World Meteorological Organization U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. World Agricultural Outlook Board.

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WorldAgriculturalOutlookBoard

GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Utilization of GIS Technology for

Agrometeorological Applications

Robert Stefanski and Ray Motha

World Meteorological Organization

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

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WorldAgriculturalOutlookBoard

GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Introduction

  • Several analytical techniques are used to monitor crop weather worldwide
    • time series analyses
    • Historical analog comparisons
    • static maps
    • Depiction of ET, soil moisture
  • Until recently, many maps were static and depicted just one variable, making it difficult to:
    • overlay data sets
    • visualize and evaluate relationships
    • easily assess crop weather conditions
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have helped overcome these hurdles
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WorldAgriculturalOutlookBoard

GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

GIS Described

Simple GIS

  • GIS defined: method for organizing, displaying, and analyzing spatial data and their relationships using computers and compatible technologies
  • GIS incorporates quantitative data directly into the system, helping users:
    • overlay multiple data sets
    • create precise maps
    • perform spatial analyses
  • Numerous organizations use GIS to study, monitor, and model processes

Robust GIS

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WorldAgriculturalOutlookBoard

GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

GIS Users

USDA Forest Service

GIS used to map wildfire burn severity and to

focus efforts to minimize flooding and erosion

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GIS used to map crop areas

annually for selected states

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GIS used to delineate field boundaries,

map land use, and calculate acreages

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PRISM

Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model

  • Generates gridded estimates of climatic parameters
  • Moving-window regression of climate vs. elevation for each grid cell
    • Uses nearby station observations
  • Spatial climate knowledge base weights stations in the regression function by their climatological similarity to the target grid cell
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Station Weighting

Combined weight of a station is:

W = f {Wd, Wz, Wc, Wf, Wp, Wl, Wt, We}

  • Distance
  • Elevation
  • Clustering
  • Topographic Facet (orientation)
  • Coastal Proximity
  • Vertical Layer (inversion)
  • Topographic Index (cold air pooling)
  • Effective Terrain Height (orographic profile)
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

GIS used to track tropical cyclones

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

GIS used to map flooding associated

with a landfalling hurricane

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

WAOB GIS

  • Software
    • ArcView 3.x
    • ArcGIS 9.x
  • Hardware
    • 7 Pentium IV desktop computers
      • Processing speed 2.4 to 2.8 GHz
      • 512 MB RAM
      • Windows 2000/XP operating system
    • PCs connected via local area network
    • Oracle 9i database
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Data

  • U.S. National Weather Service
    • synoptic/cooperative observer data
  • WMO data important
  • NWS/WMO data archived in DBMS
  • Data describing extreme weather
    • tropical cyclone wind/coordinate data
    • mesonetwork temp./precip. data
  • USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop production, yield, and area data
  • NASS weekly crop progress/condition data
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

USDA Agrometeorological GIS Applications

  • WAOB GIS regularly used to create a variety of agricultural weather analyses
  • Products grouped into three categories:
    • Manual, single-parameter applications
    • Automated, single-parameter applications
    • Manual, multiple-parameter applications
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Manual, Single-Parameter Applications

  • Refer to those WAOB products that map one agricultural or meteorological parameter and are generally labor-intensive to create
  • Created by manually converting raw data into GIS-compatible formats and then using a GUI to import and display these data in the GIS
  • GUI also used to add text and legends to the crop and weather maps, and thus create the finished products
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Crop Production Data – Internet

U.S. Corn

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Crop Production Data – Excel

U.S. Corn

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Crop Production Data – ArcView

U.S. Corn

slide22

Weather Analyses – Text File

Text file, comma-delimited WMO data

Note latitude/longitude data in addition to weather data

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Automated, Single-Parameter Applications

  • Similar to manual, single-parameter applications in that one agricultural or meteorological parameter is displayed and analyzed on each map, however, the process for creating these products has been automated
  • Product creation process can be time consuming and tedious if a large number of products are desired and these products are created manually
  • Automation significantly reduces the time and labor required to produce these products
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Avenue Scripts

  • Object-oriented programming language, enables users to automate various tasks associated with mapping
  • Examples of automation:
    • loading data
    • spatial analysis (e.g., contouring)
    • defining map scale/extent
    • annotation
    • creating a map legend
    • exporting/printing a map
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Daily Plot Maps

Green number = precipitation

Red number = maximum temperature

Blue number = minimum temperature

Empty, partially filled, and completely filled green circles symbolize precipitation amounts

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

Manual, Multiple-Parameter Applications

  • Refer to those WAOB products that map two or more agrometeorological parameters and are generally labor-intensive to create
  • Demonstrate the significant overlay capabilities of GIS, specifically the ability to visualize – and quantify – the percent of agriculture affected by various types of weather
  • Often typify the special crop weather assessments prepared by WAOB meteorologists in response to extreme or severe weather
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

U.S. Drought Monitor – Background

  • In 1999, government and university scientists began working together to produce the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), a weekly product designed to provide a single snapshot of the spatial extent and intensity of drought in U.S.
  • Drought experts from four agencies are responsible for coordinating USDM production each week
  • On a rotating basis, an individual from one of these agencies serves as product author for the week, and typically authors the product for 2 weeks.
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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

U.S. Drought Monitor - Methodology

  • Each Monday, author consults data from numerous sources
    • quantitative observational networks
    • model output
    • satellite and radar imagery
    • subjective reports
  • Author uses these data to prepare a first draft of the USDM for that week
  • Draft distributed via email list-server to approximately 150 people, including fellow authors and climate and water experts from around the country.

FINAL

1st draft

2nd draft

3rd draft

FINAL

1st draft

2nd draft

3rd draft

FINAL

1st draft

2nd draft

3rd draft

FINAL

1st draft

2nd draft

3rd draft

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

U.S. Drought Monitor - Methodology

  • Members of drought list provide author feedback, used to refine USDM
  • Through iterative process, author prepares and distributes 2-3 drafts of the USDM during Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of each week to obtain the best product possible.
  • Final product and an accompanying text summary posted every Thursday at 0830 LT on the USDM web site:

(http://www.drought.unl.edu/dm/monitor.html)

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GIS APPLICATIONS IN AGROMETEOROLOGY

U.S. Drought Monitor - Software

  • Originally prepared using CorelDraw
    • unable to overlay indices
    • quantitative analysis not possible
  • USDM authors switched to ArcGIS
  • Authors obtained professional training
    • draw drought areas
    • annotate map
    • print/export product
  • Initial difficulties using GIS blamed on
    • author inexperience
    • deadlines limiting troubleshooting time