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Section 1: Spain’s Empire in the Americas. Throughout the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish conquer Central and portions of North America. Spain’s Empire in the Americas The Spanish Claim a New Empire. Cortés Subdues the Aztec • Conquistadors (conquerors)—Spanish explorers, seek gold, silver

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section 1 spain s empire in the americas

Section 1: Spain’s Empire in the Americas

Throughout the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish conquer Central and portions of North America

spain s empire in the americas the spanish claim a new empire
Spain’s Empire in the AmericasThe Spanish Claim a New Empire
  • Cortés Subdues the Aztec
  • • Conquistadors (conquerors)—Spanish explorers, seek gold, silver
  • • 1519 Hernándo Cortés leads army into Americas, claims land for Spain

Cortes conquered the Aztec nation of 5 million with less than 1000 soldiers

slide3

• Aztec dominate region; Nahua people who resent Aztec join Cortés

  • • Montezuma thinks Cortés a god; gives him share of Aztec gold
  • • In 1520 Aztec rebel; in 1521 Spanish and their allies defeat Aztec
  • • Cortés founds Mexico City, New Spaincolony on Tenochtitlán ruins
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=_nS6MpVbB_g
encomienda
Encomienda
  • The encomienda system was deeply entrenched in the history and the culture of Spanish America. It is considered by many historians as one of the most damaging institutions that the Spanish colonists implemented in the New World.
  • The system would come to symbolize oppression and exploitation.
  • The first purposes of the system were meant for good( you give me something, I’ll give you protection) the end results of the system was nothing but catastrophic for the Indians.
slide6

Spanish Pattern of Conquest

  • Spanish settlers mostly men, called peninsulares; marry native women
  • Mestizo—person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
  • Landlords use encomienda—force natives to farm, ranch, mine
slide7

What did this provide for New Spain?

  • Why did it end up being catastrophic for the Indians?
the conquistadors push north
The Conquistadors Push North
  • Other Countries Explore North America
  • England, France, Netherlands sponsor voyages in 1500s and 1600s
  • Exploring Florida
  • • Juan Ponce de León discovers and names La Florida (1513)- Also around this time, he learned of a Caribbean island called Bimini, on which there were rumored to be miraculous waters that could rejuvenate those who drank from them (the fountain of youth).
  • The founding of FLA was an accident!!
tragic death
Tragic death…
  • Accounts of the battle that ensued after his arrival are spotty, but in 1521, Ponce de León sailed again for Florida with two ships and 200 men, intent on settling the land.
  • This time, though, he was wounded by an arrow during an Indian attack, after which he and his colonists sailed to Cuba, where he soon died of the wound.
pedro menendez de aviles spain
Pedro Menendez de Aviles(Spain)
  • Spain was upset to learn that France was building colonies in Florida. As a result, Pedro Menendez de Aviles was sent to drive out the French colonists.
  • In 1549, the king of Spain commissioned him to fight pirates off the coastline. He did such an outstanding job that Philip II, who became king in 1556, granted him permission to start a colony in Florida to try to drive out the French.
  • Before long, Menendez and over 2,000 sailors, soldiers, and their families set sail in 11 ships for Florida.
  • Founded St. Augustine in Sept 8, 1565.
settling the southwest
Settling the Southwest
  • In 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado leads expedition to Southwest
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGM6i-1ozPk&feature=player_detailpage
  • Pedro de Peralta, governor of New Mexico, Spain’s northern holdings
  • He helps found Santa Fe (1609–1610); several missions built in area
resistance to the spanish
Resistance to the Spanish
  • Conflict in New Mexico
  • Priests convert many Native Americans, try to suppress their culture
  • In 1670s Spanish force natives to pay tribute, do labor for missions
  • Popé’s Rebellion( Pueblo Revolt)
  • Pueblo Indians religious leader Popé heads uprising in New Mexico (1680)
  • Killed 400 people, and drove the remaining 2,000 out of the providence.
  • Pueblo destroy Spanish churches, execute priests, force Spanish out
  • Spanish armies regain area 12 years later
section 2 an english settlement at jamestown
Section 2: An English Settlement at Jamestown
  • The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.
english settlers struggles in north america
English settlers struggles in North America
  • The Business of Colonization
  • Joint-stock companies—investors fund colony, get profits
  • In 1607, Virginia Company sends 150 people to found Jamestown
  • A Disastrous Start
  • Colonists seek gold, suffer from disease and hunger
  • John Smith forces colonists to farm; gets help from Powhatan people
  • Powhatan people not happy the settlers did not return the hospitality and would not marry their woman so…
  • (1609) 600 colonists arrive; Powhatan destroy farms; “starving time”
slide15

Jamestown Begins to Flourish

  • New arrivals revive and expand colony; grow tobacco
  • “Brown Gold” and Indentured Servants
  • Tobacco becomes profitable; export 1.5 million pounds by late 1620s
  • Headright system—purchaser of passage gets 50 acres—lures settlers- 100 acres was given if you were currently living in the area.
  • Plantation owners use indentured servants— work 4–7 years for passage
slide16

The First African Laborers

  • First Africans arrive (1619); treated as indentured servants
  • Late 1600s, owners begin importing costly slaves because
  • - indentured population decreases
  • - colony becomes wealthy
the settlers clash with native americans
The Settlers Clash with Native Americans
  • The English Pattern of Conquest
  • English do not live or intermarry with Native Americans
  • The Settlers Battle Native Americans
  • Continued hostilities between Powhatan and English after starving time
  • 1614 marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe creates temporary peace
  • Renewed fighting; king makes Virginia royal colony under his control
economic differences split virginia
Economic Differences Split Virginia
  • Hostilities Develop
  • Former indentured people settle frontier, cannot vote, pay high taxes
  • Frontier settlers battle natives; tension between frontier, wealthy
  • Governor refuses to give money to help frontier fight local natives
  • Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Nathaniel Bacon raises army to fight natives on frontier (1676)
  • Governor calls Bacon’s army illegal; Bacon sets fire to Jamestown
slide19

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ueLdYi1AE-Q&feature=player_detailpagehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ueLdYi1AE-Q&feature=player_detailpage

section 3 puritan new england
Section 3: Puritan New England
  • English Puritans come to North America, beginning in 1620.
puritans create a new england
Puritans Create a “New England”
  • Puritans and Pilgrims
  • Puritans, religious group, want to purify Church of England
  • Separatists, including Pilgrims, form independent congregations
  • In 1620, Pilgrims flee to escape persecution, found Plymouth Colony
  • The Massachusetts Bay Company
  • In 1630, joint-stock company founds Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • John Winthrop is Puritan colony’s first governor
slide22

“City Upon a Hill”

  • Puritan adult males vote for General Court; Court chooses governor
  • Church and State
  • Civic officials are church members, have duty to do God’s will
  • Importance of the Family
  • Puritans generally migrate as families
  • Community makes sure family members behave in “God-fearing” way
dissent in the puritan community
Dissent in the Puritan Community
  • The Founding of Providence
  • Roger Williams—extreme Separatist minister with controversial views
  • one of a group of 16th and 17th century English Protestants preferring to separate from rather than to reform the Church of England
  • General Court orders his arrest; Williams flees
  • In 1636 he founds colony of Providence

- negotiates for land with Narragansett tribe

  • - guarantees separation of church and state, religious freedom
  • Anne Hutchinson Banished
  • Anne Hutchinson teaches church, ministers are unnecessary
  • Hutchinson banished 1638; family, followers leave colony
  • She and her family went to New York and her and all but 1 of her 15 children were killed by Indians.
native americans resist colonial expansion
Native Americans Resist Colonial Expansion
  • Disputes Over Land
  • Settlers spread to western Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut
  • Natives think land treaties temporary, Europeans think permanent
  • The Pequot(Indians) War
  • Pequot War—Pequot takes stand against colonists, nearly destroyed
  • King Philip’s War
  • Name given by the English describing the Native American chief.
  • Deprived of land, natives toil for English, must follow Puritan laws
  • Wampanoag chief Metacom organizes tribes to wipe out settlers (1675)
  • King Philip’s War fierce; hunger, disease, casualties defeat tribes
section 4 settlement of the new colonies
Section 4: Settlement of the New Colonies
  • The Dutch settle New Netherland; English Quakers led by William Penn settle Pennsylvania.
the dutch found new netherland
The Dutch Found New Netherland
  • A Diverse Colony
  • In 1621, the Dutch West India Company colonizes New Netherland
  • Settlers from other European countries and Africa welcomed
  • Dutch trade for furs with Native Americans
  • English Takeover
  • In 1664, duke of York becomes proprietor (owner) of New Netherland
  • - renames colony New York
  • - later gives part of land to friends, names it New Jersey
the quakers settle pennsylvania
The Quakers Settle Pennsylvania
  • Penn’s “Holy Experiment”
  • In 1681, William Penn founds Pennsylvania on Quaker principles
  • Quakersideas: equality, cooperation, religious toleration, pacifism-(opposition to war)
  • Pennsylvania meant to be a “holy experiment”
  • - adult males get 50 acres, right to vote
  • - representative assembly
  • - freedom of religion
  • Native American Relations
  • Penn treats native people fairly; over 50 years without conflict
slide28

A Thriving Colony

  • Penn recruits immigrants; thousands of Germans go to Pennsylvania
  • Quakers become minority; slavery is introduced
  • Thirteen Colonies
  • Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, founds Maryland; has religious freedom
  • James Ogelthorpe founds Georgia as haven for debtors
  • By 1752, there are 13 British colonies in North America