Section I Causes
The Causes of WW1 Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism
Militarism 1. • Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. • The British feared an attack on their Empire
Militarism 2. • Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies 1880 1914 • Germany 1.3m 5.0m • France 0.73m 4.0m • Russia 0.40m 1.2m
Alliances • By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances. • The alliances made it more likely that a war would start. • Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.
Imperialism • All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory. • The British feared Germany in Africa. • The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans
Nationalism • This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence. • In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. Serbia’s national flag
The Crisis 1. • 28 June 1914 • Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo. • Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. • Hotbed of Slav nationalism Seal of the Black Hand group
The Crisis 2. • “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke • Bomb attempt fails in morning • Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon. • Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.
The Crisis 3. • Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum. • Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum. • Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia • Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down. • Germany declares war on Russia “Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”
Why did Britain get involved? • Britain had Ententes with France and Russia. • Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight. • The Schlieffen Plan Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry going on in Berlin”
The Schlieffen Plan • Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia. • “Knock out blow” aimed at France first. • Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. • Germans thought Britain would not intervene.
The American Response • Please read pages- 418-419 a. outline reasons why the US decided to stay neutral at the early stages of WWI.
American Neutrality • Trade heavily influenced the US’s position of neutrality at the beginning of the war • American foreign investment rose from $700mto $3.5 billion between 1879-1914 • A British blockade and German U boats would threaten that trade
The Preparedness Movement • Many business leaders urged the US to get ready for war. • By late summer 1915, the movement’s leaders had persuaded the gov’t to set up camps to train American men for combat. • By summer 1916, Wilson and Congress agreed to greatly increase the numbers in the armed forces.
American Neutrality 2. Although neutral, most Americans opposed the Central Powers. Why?
US Declaration of War • Read pages 421-424. • Describe how each of the following helped bring the US into WWI • German U boats • The USS Lusitania • Sussex Pledge • The Zimmerman note
US Declaration of War • Your task: • Develop a thesis statement and provide three supporting details to answer the following question: • Why did the United States enter WWI?
The World War I Era Americans On The European Front Chapter 12 section 3
The World War I Era Americans On The European Front ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • How did the United States prepare to fight in WWI? • In what ways did American troops help turn the tide of war? • What were conditions like in Europe and in the United States at the end of the war? THE BIG IDEA American troops helped the Allies defeat the Central Powers in World War I. Class Discussion Complete the chart below by answering the following questions. Are Allies automatically Can Allies exist without What kinds of equals a common enemy? Relationships do allies share?
WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”
THE UNITED STATES PREPARES FOR WAR As you read Preparing for War, complete the outline of notes below that gives details on American preparation for war to American arrival in Europe. Draftees and Volunteers 1. Selective Service Act – authorized a draft of young men for military service. 2. The general feeling that this was the “war to end all wars” led to wide acceptance of the draft. 3. By November 1918, more than 24 million men had registered for the draft. From those, a lottery picked 3 million draftees to serve. • Volunteers and National Guardsmen made up the remainder of what was called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF). • Some 11,000 women volunteered to serve in uniform as nurses, drivers, and clerks. Another 14,000 women served abroad as civilians working for the government or for private agencies.
1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917 REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF 21-30 (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFT ABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATION ABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS
COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION: CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD PRO-WAR PROPAGANDA LED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL
WOMEN AND THE WAR • Some 11,000 women volunteered to serve in uniform as nurses, drivers, and clerks. Another 14,000 women served abroad as civilians working for the government or for private agencies. Nurse Helen Grace McClelland, a graduate of the Pennsylvania Hospital School of Nursing, in her World War I uniform. Her distinguished service on the front lines during the war earned McClelland a citation from General Sir Douglas Haig, the Royal Red Cross First Class from Britain, and the Distinguished Service Cross from the United States.
PREPARING FOR WARCONTINUED Training for War • At training camps, draftees learned how to use a bayonet and a rifle, dig a trench, put on a gas mask, and throw a grenade. • The military planned to give new soldiers several months of training before shipping them off to battle. However, that didn’t always happen. • Training would sometimes be cut short in order to transport soldiers to France in time to be of help. The Convoy System • The War Department had to worry about transporting its troops overseas safely. In 1917, German U-boats sunk more than 400 Allied and neutral ships. • May 1917, all merchant and troop ships traveled in a convoy. A Convoy consisted of a group of unarmedships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats, and other armed naval vessels equipped with hydrophones to track and destroy submarines. • German U-boats did not sink a single United States troopship traveling to Europe.
PREPARING FOR WARCONTINUED American Soldiers in Europe 1. General Pershing kept American troops independent of the Allied armies. In his view, the Allies had become too accustomed to defensive action. He wanted to save his men’s strength for offensive moves. • American troops surprised the British and French soldiers on the front lines with their strength, good health, and energy. • Members of the American Expeditionary Force were called “doughboys.”
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1 “Great Migration.” 1916 – 1919 70,000 War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.
True Sons of Freedom More than 350,000 African Americans served in segregated units during World War I, mostly as support troops. Several units saw action alongside French soldiers fighting against the Germans, and 171 African Americans were awarded the French Legion of Honor. In response to protests of discrimination and mistreatment from the black community, several hundred African American men received officers' training in Des Moines, Iowa. By October 1917, over six hundred African Americans were commissioned as captains and first and second lieutenants.
AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY
ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s. CUTTING DOWN TREES BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE
U.S. 1st Army Post Band Souilly, France 1918
AN AMERICAN HERO Sergeant Alvin C. York, 328th Infantry, who with aid of 17 men, captured 132 German prisoners; shows hill on which raid took place [October 8, 1918]. Argonne Forest, near Cornay, France., 02/07/1919
HOW DID THE U.S. GOVERNMENT PAY FOR THE WAR? INCOME TAX CREATED IN 1913 Amendment XVI The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. BONDS: THE GOVERNMENT BORROWS MONEY WAR SAVING STAMPS: COST BETWEEN 25 CENTS AND $5, THE GOVERNMENT PRINTED BOOKLETS AND WHEN THEY WERE FULL THEY COULD BE TURNED IN FOR BONDS
THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS. BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
CELEBRITIES MOTIVATED PEOPLE TO GET INVOLVED IN THE LOAN DRIVES FATTIE ARBUCKLE THE HUMAN SQUIRREL