Chapter 7:. The Fight for a Continent. Lesson 1: The Spanish Move North. New Spain. In 1535, Spain had established a vast colony of New Spain. It stretched south from South America to Mexico with its capital being Mexico City. Juan Ponce de Leon.
New Spain In 1535, Spain had established a vast colony of New Spain. It stretched south from South America to Mexico with its capital being Mexico City.
Juan Ponce de Leon In the middle 1500s, Spanish leaders decided to expand their colony into Florida. The Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon had explored this area in the early 1500s and Spanish leaders hoped a colony in this area would prevent the French and English from gaining a foothold in this part of North America.
Pedro Menendez de Aviles In 1565, Pedro Menendez de Aviles led a small fleet of Spanish warships to Florida. Menendez knew the French had already started building a settlement in Florida. His mission was to find the French, defeat them, and take control of Florida for Spain. In a series of bloody battles, Menendez and his soldiers defeated the French. Florida became a part of New Spain.
St. Augustine The Spanish founded St. Augustine on the east coast of Florida. This was the first permanent settlement in what is now the United States.
Don Juan de Oñate The Spanish began expanding into Southwest region of the United States. In 1598, Don Juan de Oñateled a small army north across the Rio Grande .
New Mexico The Spanish called this region New Mexico. The Pueblo, Apache, and Navajo people had been living on this land for centuries. Now the Spanish were claiming it.
Spanish Search for Gold and Silver The Spanish hoped to find gold and silver in New Mexico. They soon found out, however, that this land was not rich in these minerals.
Hot and Dry They soon learned that this region was too hot and dry for many kinds of farming. The open grasslands were good, however, for sheep and cattle ranching.
Hacienda Some wealthy ranchers built haciendas (large estate). Haciendas were often self sufficient communities with vegetable gardens, workshops and mills. Workers, many of them Native Americans, lived on the haciendas.
Presidio Spanish religious leaders began to build missions in New Mexico to try to convert Native Americans to Christianity. To protect the missions, many of them built presidios (military forts).
El Camino Real To connect Mexico to Mexico City, the Spanish built a road called El Camino Real, “the royal road.” It was used to carry goods between Mexico City and Santa Fe.
Popé In 1680, a Pueblo leader named Popé led a revolt against the Spanish in New Mexico. For many reason, the Pueblo people were ready to join in this fight.
The Spanish and the Pueblo The Spanish were enslaving Pueblo people, sending some to Mexico and forcing others to work on ranches and missions in New Mexico. Spanish settlers were taking over Pueblo lands and villages. Spanish leaders were trying to force the Pueblo to give up their traditional ways of living and worshipping.
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo attacked settlements all over New Mexico, killings hundreds of Spanish settlers. Joined by the Apache and Navajo fighters, Popé and his men surrounded Santa Fe.
Red or White? A Pueblo leader named Juan rode into the city carrying two crosses, one white and one red. The Spanish governor asked Juan to explain the meaning of the two crosses. Juan declared: “If you choose the white, there will be no war, but you must leave the country. If you choose red, you all must die, for we are many and you are few.”
Spanish Recapture New Mexico By the early 1690s, Popé had died. The Pueblos and other people of the region were not as united as they had been. The Spanish had recaptured the New Mexico from the Pueblo in 1692.
Moving Back Spanish settlers and missionaries had moved back into New Mexico. They also moved into land that is now Texas and Arizona.
San Antonio, Texas The town of San Antonio, Texas was founded in 1718. Spanish settlers hoped that these new towns and missions would help Spain keep control of the Southwest.
Worries Over? They did not want to be driven out again by Native American forces. They were also concerned that the French might try to take over this region.
Father Junipero Serra New Spain continued to expand throughout the 1700s. Father Junipero Serra founded the first Spanish missions in another part of New Spain—California.
Lesson 2: The French Explore the Mississippi
New France in 1534 The French established New France in 1534. The major settlements of New France were Quebec and Montreal in present day Canada.
The French moved west slowly building trading posts and missions along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes. Trading posts were places where the French and Native Americans met to trade goods.
“Big Water” Native Americans also told the French about a big river to the west. Algonquian-speaking Indians called this river the Mississippi, which means “big water.”
French and Native Americans French traders and missionaries learned important skills from the Native Americans of this region. They learned how to build canoes from birch bark and how to make snowshoes for walking in deep snow.
Control of the River The leaders of New France were eager to explore the Mississippi River. Control of this river would help them reach new lands where they could build trading posts.
Northwest Passage?! The French were still hoping to find a river that flowed west to the Pacific Ocean—the Northwest Passage. Could the Mississippi River be this river?
Jacques Marquette In the summer of 1673, the French missionary Jacques Marquette set out to explore the Mississippi.
Louis Joliet He was accompanied by a fur trader named Louis Joliet and five other French adventurers.
Marquette’s Maps As they traveled, Marquette drew maps of the Mississippi.
He also spoke with many Native Americans who lived along the river. In his journal, Marquette wrote about entering one Native American village and introducing himself: “They replied that they were Illinois, and, as a token of peace, they offered us their pipes to smoke.”
After sharing a meal with the Illinois, the explorers resumed their journey. Since the river continued to flow south, however, Marquette realized this was not the Northwest Passage.
Giving Up? The explorers had paddled almost 1,000 miles south on the Mississippi. Now they had to turn around and head back north.
Robert La Salle Nine years later, a French explorer named Robert La Salle continued the French exploration of the Mississippi River. La Salle’s goal was to travel all the way to the mouth of the Mississippi River.
The Journey Begins He set out from the St. Lawrence River in 1681. To reach the Mississippi, La Salle and his French and Native American companions put their canoes on sleds and dragged them over snow and frozen streams. They began rowing down the Mississippi River in February 1682.
La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi at the Gulf of Mexico in April. While the French fired muskets in the air and shouted “Long live the king!” La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River valley for France.
He also claimed all the river’s tributaries (streams or rivers that flow into a larger river). La Salle claimed this territory Louisiana, for King Louis XIV of France. Louisiana became part of New France. New France was now a vast empire.
During the late 1600s and early 1700s, the French built trading posts, forts, and missions in New France. Many French settlements such as Detroit and New Orleans grew into major American cities. New Orleans, founded in 1718, was Louisiana’s territorial and later state capital from 1722 to 1849.
With an ideal location at the mouth of the Mississippi, New Orleans became a busy trading center. Today, nearly 300 years later, New Orleans is one of the busiest ports in the United States.
Lesson 3: The French and Indian War
George Washington George Washington was a young military leader from Virginia.
Washington and his soldiers built Fort Necessity on a meadow in what is now southwestern Pennsylvania. What was Washington doing here in 1754? Why was he fighting the French? This story begins many years earlier.
We learned earlier, the first English colonists built settlements along the Atlantic coast. Throughout the 1600s, the population of the colonies grew quickly. Settlers wanted more land to build towns and farms, and they began to move west. Native Americans, who had been living on this land for thousands of years, resisted English settlement.
Metacom In New England, the conflict led to war in 1675. A Wampanoag leader named Metacom, son of chief Massasoit, led several Native Americans into battle against English settlers.
King Phillip’s War Metacom’s goal was to force the English out of New England. The English called Metacom King Phillip, and this war became known as King Phillip’s War.
The Final Result After a year of fighting, Metacom was killed. The English settlers won King Phillip’s War. They now controlled most of New England.
Get Me Out of Town! During the 1700s, settlers continued moving west. As colonial cities, towns, and plantations grew, land along the Atlantic coast became more and more expensive.
Backcountry In search of land of their own, some families began moving to an area called the backcountry. This was a rugged stretch of land near the Appalachian Mountains. Families build log cabins, hunted, and carved small towns from the rocky soil.
Moving Into the Ohio River Valley By the middle 170s, settlers were moving even farther west. They crossed the Appalachian Mountains and entered the Ohio River Valley—a region of fertile land and thick forests along the Ohio River.
Who Owns What? However, other groups also claimed these lands. Powerful Native American tribes lived there. The French claimed it as part of New France. Who would control this region? As George Washington discovered in May of 1754, this question would be answered by war.
Remember La Salle? France’s claim on the Ohio River Valley was based on the exploration of Robert La Salle. Do you remember what La Salle did when he reached the mouth of the Mississippi River? He claimed the river and all its tributaries for France. Therefore the French claimed the Ohio River Valley as part of New France. The French began building forts to defend this region.
Special Delivery England, now known as Great Britain, also claimed the Ohio River Valley. In 1753, British leaders wrote a stern letter to the French, stating that the land along the Ohio River was “known to be the property of Great Britain.” The British demanded the French leave the area immediately. George Washington was sent to deliver the letter.
The Answer? Four months later, Washington returned with the French’s response. The French refused to leave.
The Plan In March 1754, Washington marched west again. This time he commanded about 150 soldiers. His mission was to help build a British fort at this strategic spot where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers join to form the Ohio River.
What now? He soon learned that the French were already there building Fort Duquesne. Washington decided to try to capture this French fort.
The French and Indian War Washington and his soldiers did not reach Fort Duquesne. In the woods near the French fort, Washington attacked and defeated a group of French soldiers.
Fort Necessity After the battle, Washington and his men returned to Fort Necessity—a small log fort they had begun building a few days earlier. .
The French attacked on a rainy day in early July 1754. After many of his men were killed or wounded, Washington was forced to surrender. Soaked and exhausted, the soldiers returned to Virginia
These small battles were the start of a long war between Britain and France. In the 13 Colonies, the war was called the French and Indian Warbecause British forces fought against the French and their American Indian Allies.
The British tried to gain Native American allies of their own. At a meeting in Albany, New York in 1754, leaders of the British colonies asked the powerful Iroquois League to join the fight against the French.
Hendrick Iroquois leaders resisted, however. An Iroquois leader named Hendrick said that the French and the British were “quarreling about lands which belong to us, and their quarrel may end in our destruction.”
General Edward Braddock In 1755, the British made another attempt to capture Fort Duquesne. Led by General Edward Braddock, 2,100 shopped their way through the Pennsylvania forests .
George Washington was with this army. On July 9, just eight miles from Fort Duquesne, the British were attacked by French and Indian forces.
Washington later wrote that many British soldiers panicked and “ran as sheep before the hounds.” General Braddock was killed, and the British were defeated. Washington wrote to his family that: “…I had bullets through my coat and two horses shot under me, and yet escaped unhurt.”
Who Will Win? This was a first in a series of French victories over the British. It looked like Britain would lose the war. Then, in 1758, things began to change.
In London, British leaders were worried about the way the war was going. They decided to send more soldiers to fight in North America. In 1758, British forces began winning battles against the French.
Iroquois Arrive! The British were also helped by the Iroquois who agreed to join the British side in 1759. Iroquois leaders hope that victory in battle would help the Iroquois increase their power and maintain control of their lands.
And the Winner Is… The key battle of the war was fought at Quebec, the capital of New France. Led by British General James Wolfe, British forces captured Quebec in September 1759. This victory helped the British win the French and Indian War.
Official End to War The war officially ended when Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763. As a result, Britain took over most of New France. Spain gained lands west of the Mississippi.
Effects of War on Native Americans The French and Indian War also had a major impact on the Native Americans of North America. The traditional lands of many Native American people were now part of the British empire. British settlers were eager to move onto this land.
Pontiac Many Native Americans resisted the new British settlers. In 1763, an Ottawa leader named Pontiac called on his warriors to revolt against the British. Britain, he declared, “seeks only to destroy us.”
Pontiac’s Rebellion Native Americans from many tribes attacked British forts and settlements in the Ohio River valley and along the Great Lakes. This fighting was known as Pontiac’s Rebellion. Pontiac won several victories before the British put down the rebellion.
King George III British leaders were alarmed by Pontiac’s Rebellion. They did not want to continue fighting with Native Americans on lands won from France. Britain’s King George III issued a Proclamation of 1763.
Proclamation of 1763 Britain’s King George III issued a Proclamation of 1763. This proclamation, or official announcement, said that colonists were no longer allowed to settle on land west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The king The king hoped this would prevent future Native American rebellions. The proclamation was not popular among many colonists who wanted new lands to settle. Tensions between the colonists and the British government began to grow.