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Evolution. Evidence How Natural Selection works Organizing from Kingdom -> Species. Evolution. Theory that all living things descended from a common ancestor (all life is related) Happens by a very very small changes over verrrrryyyyy long time.

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Evolution


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    1. Evolution Evidence How Natural Selection works Organizing from Kingdom -> Species

    2. Evolution • Theory that all living things descended from a common ancestor (all life is related) • Happens by a very very small changes over verrrrryyyyy long time. • Natural Selection is the process that makes evolution happen.

    3. Evidence for Evolution • Fossils • Bones show small changes over time • DNA/Proteins • Closely related animals have similar DNA • Body parts • Closely related animals have similar features, bones etc. • Embryos • Developing babies all look very similar

    4. How does Natural Selection work? • Variation (everyone looks a little different) • Meiosis, Sexual reproduction, mutations brings variety • Over reproducing • In nature, too many babies are made • Competition • For food, space, mates etc • Survival of fittest • Those with the “best” traits, survive, reproduce more and pass their successful traits to offspring

    5. If all life is related, who is closest related? • Those in the same Species are the closest related. • How can you tell if they are the same species? • They can reproduce together and make fertile offspring • If they cannot do this they are not the same species. • The next group above species is called Genus • Every organisms has a 2 part name in italics that is made of their genus and species. • Ex. dog - Canis familiaris Canis = genus; familiaris= species

    6. Organizing all life into groups… From biggest Remember It!!! Kingdom King Phylum Phillip Class Came Order Over Family For Genus Green Species Soup to smallest

    7. PREPARE TO READ!!! • Most Evolution questions have long stories to read about different animals and how they have changed. • DON’T PANIC • You do not have to know what the animal is. The information you need is in the reading!!! • As you read the question think about the evidence for evolution, how natural selection works and what makes the most sense

    8. A species of newt produces a toxin that can kill predators. Scientists have observed that some garter snakes can feed on the newts because they have a natural resistance to the toxin. In areas where populations of newts and garter snakes interact, which of the following predictions is best supported by evolutionary theory? A. The garter snakes with resistance to the toxin will successfully reproduce and pass the trait on to their offspring. B. The garter snakes without resistance to the toxin will acquire resistance by increasing the rate at which they feed on the newts. C. The newts that produce low levels of toxin will also develop camouflage adaptations that allow them to hide from the garter snakes. D. The newts will stop making the toxin rather than continue to use energy to make a toxin that is ineffective against the garter snakes.

    9. A species of newt produces a toxin that can kill predators. Scientists have observed that some garter snakes can feed on the newts because they have a natural resistance to the toxin. In areas where populations of newts and garter snakes interact, which of the following predictions is best supported by evolutionary theory? A. The garter snakes with resistance to the toxin will successfully reproduce and pass the trait on to their offspring.

    10. At one time, all the continents on Earth were joined in a supercontinent called Pangaea. Over time Pangaea split into separate continents. Which of the following statements describes a result of this split? A. All fossil evidence of species from Pangaea was lost. B. Organisms on the separated continents no longer migrated for breeding. C. Ancestral organisms evolved into different species on the separated continents. D. Evolution in species proceeded more slowly on the separate continents than it had on Pangaea.

    11. At one time, all the continents on Earth were joined in a supercontinent called Pangaea. Over time Pangaea split into separate continents. Which of the following statements describes a result of this split? C. Ancestral organisms evolved into different species on the separated continents.

    12. Long-tailed weasels and European otters are both classified into the family Mustelidae. Which of the following types of information was most likely used to classify these animals into the same family? A. food source B. skeletal structure C. location of habitat D. method of movement

    13. Long-tailed weasels and European otters are both classified into the family Mustelidae. Which of the following types of information was most likely used to classify these animals into the same family? B. skeletal structure Tough question, but B is the only answer that is about the actual animal appearance, not its behavior or environment.

    14. Scientific evidence shows that modern dogs, wolves, and foxes all have a common ancestor. Further evidence shows that dogs are more closely related to wolves than to foxes. Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that dogs are more closely related to wolves than to foxes? A. The diets of dogs and wolves are more similar than the diets of dogs and foxes. B. The life spans of dogs and wolves are more similar than the life spans of dogs and foxes. C. The genetic sequences of dogs and wolves are more similar than the genetic sequences of dogs and foxes. D. The body sizes of dogs and wolves are more similar than the body sizes of dogs and foxes.

    15. Scientific evidence shows that modern dogs, wolves, and foxes all have a common ancestor. Further evidence shows that dogs are more closely related to wolves than to foxes. Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that dogs are more closely related to wolves than to foxes? C. The genetic sequences of dogs and wolves are more similar than the genetic sequences of dogs and foxes.

    16. Which of the following is the best example of natural selection? A. The lifespan of a chimpanzee is extended to 60 years in captivity. B. The population size of giraffes changes over time as a result of immigration. C. The bone density of a human increases significantly as a result of participation in sports. D. The average toxin level in a poisonous frog population increases over time in response to high predation.

    17. Which of the following is the best example of natural selection? D. The average toxin level in a poisonous frog population increases over time in response to high predation.

    18. The diagram shows many finch species that originated from a single ancestral finch species in the Galápagos Islands. Which of the following statements best explains why many different finch species originated from the single ancestral species? A. Populations adapted to environmental pressures. B. Recessive traits in populations were eliminated over time. C. Individuals acquired unique characteristics during their lifetimes. D. Random mutation caused some individuals to have harmful traits.

    19. The diagram shows many finch species that originated from a single ancestral finch species in the Galápagos Islands. Which of the following statements best explains why many different finch species originated from the single ancestral species? A. Populations adapted to environmental pressures. Adapt means to change (environmental pressure = natural selection)

    20. Which of the following statements is correct about the hierarchy of the taxonomic system currently used to classify organisms? A. All organisms of a given order belong to the same species. B. Many different classes of organisms belong to the same order. C. All organisms of a given phylum belong to the same kingdom. D. Many different families of organisms belong to the same genus.

    21. Which of the following statements is correct about the hierarchy of the taxonomic system currently used to classify organisms? C. All organisms of a given phylum belong to the same kingdom. Kingdom is bigger than phylum, so all in a phylum must be the same kingdom (Compare to all people in Roxbury are in Boston, because Boston is a bigger group that includes Roxbury)

    22. Whale fins and bat wings are anatomically similar. Which of the following does this suggest about the animals? A. Whales and bats move in the same way. B. Whales and bats have a common ancestry. C. Whales and bats have existed for the same amount of time. D. Whales and bats were once adapted to the same environment.

    23. Whale fins and bat wings are anatomically similar. Which of the following does this suggest about the animals? B. Whales and bats have a common ancestry. Similar body parts is one of the evidence pieces for evolution

    24. Which of the following is the best scientific evidence that mammals evolved from reptiles? A. similarities in the diets of extinct reptiles and modern mammals B. similarities in the average life spans of modern reptiles and modern mammals C. fossils of ancient reptiles and mammals that appear together in the same layers of rock D. fossils that show gradual changes in skull shape from reptile-like organisms to mammal-like organisms

    25. Which of the following is the best scientific evidence that mammals evolved from reptiles? D. fossils that show gradual changes in skull shape from reptile-like organisms to mammal-like organisms

    26. Which of the following statements best explains why the chestnut-sided warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica, and the cerulean warbler, Dendroica cerulea, are classified as closely related species? A. They eat the same types of insects. B. They have similar DNA sequences. C. They show similarities in their nesting behaviors. D. They live in the same types of woodland habitats.

    27. Which of the following statements best explains why the chestnut-sided warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica, and the cerulean warbler, Dendroica cerulea, are classified as closely related species? B. They have similar DNA sequences. Look for evidence of evolution

    28. The smooth-skinned, leaf-tailed gecko lives on Madagascar, an island off the coast of Africa. The gecko hunts at night and sleeps on trees by day. The color and pattern of the gecko’s body resembles leaves. Which of the following statements best explains how the gecko’s unique body color and pattern evolved? A. All the geckos needed to look like leaves in order to live in trees and therefore acquired the necessary trait. B. Individuals with bodies that looked the most like leaves interbred only with other green or brown lizard species. C. Gene sequences of all the geckos mutated to produce the leaf appearance when ancestral geckos moved from mud to trees. D. Individuals with bodies that looked the most like leaves were better able than other individuals to avoid predators and passed on the trait.

    29. The smooth-skinned, leaf-tailed gecko lives on Madagascar, an island off the coast of Africa. The gecko hunts at night and sleeps on trees by day. The color and pattern of the gecko’s body resembles leaves. Which of the following statements best explains how the gecko’s unique body color and pattern evolved? D. Individuals with bodies that looked the most like leaves were better able than other individuals to avoid predators and passed on the trait.

    30. The scientific name for the cougar is Puma concolor. Which of the following organisms is most closely related to the cougar? A. Corythaixoides concolor B. Lynx rufus C. Panthera tigris D. Puma yagouaroundi

    31. The scientific name for the cougar is Puma concolor. Which of the following organisms is most closely related to the cougar? D. Puma yagouaroundi Don’t over think it, They both belong to the Genus “Puma”

    32. Two groups of very similar-looking finches are found on the Galápagos Islands. One group of finches is found only on Floreana Island. The other group of finches is found on several of the islands, including Floreana Island. On Floreana Island, these two groups of finches do not interbreed. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by this information? A. The two groups of finches have the same song. B. The two groups of finches are different species. C. The two groups of finches adapted to eat the same foods. D. The two groups of finches descended from different ancestors.

    33. Two groups of very similar-looking finches are found on the Galápagos Islands. One group of finches is found only on Floreana Island. The other group of finches is found on several of the islands, including Floreana Island. On Floreana Island, these two groups of finches do not interbreed. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by this information? B. The two groups of finches are different species.

    34. An extinct shark named Scapanorhynchus existed over 100 million years ago. It had a long snout, sharp teeth, and a long tail fin. Which of the following statements explains how scientists most likely learned this information about Scapanorhynchus? A. They studied fossilized remains of Scapanorhynchus. B. They analyzed the DNA sequence of Scapanorhynchus. C. They looked at the skeletons of modern sharks that live where Scapanorhynchus lived. D. They studied the anatomy of other aquatic animals that lived when Scapanorhynchus lived.

    35. An extinct shark named Scapanorhynchus existed over 100 million years ago. It had a long snout, sharp teeth, and a long tail fin. Which of the following statements explains how scientists most likely learned this information about Scapanorhynchus? A. They studied fossilized remains of Scapanorhynchus.

    36. Some areas of a forest contain rich soil, while in other areas the soil is poor. Plants of a certain species grow taller in the rich soil than in the poor soil. The taller plants receive more sunlight and are able to produce more offspring than the shorter plants. If these offspring grow in rich soil, they are tall, but if they grow in poor soil, they are short. Which of the following statements best explains why this situation is not an example of evolution by natural selection? A. The observed differences in plant height are not due to genetics. B. The differences in soil conditions do not affect all plants equally. C. The short plants and tall plants are not isolated enough from each other. D. The short plants are not accumulating gene mutations as quickly as the tall plants.

    37. Some areas of a forest contain rich soil, while in other areas the soil is poor. Plants of a certain species grow taller in the rich soil than in the poor soil. The taller plants receive more sunlight and are able to produce more offspring than the shorter plants. If these offspring grow in rich soil, they are tall, but if they grow in poor soil, they are short. Which of the following statements best explains why this situation is not an example of evolution by natural selection? A. The observed differences in plant height are not due to genetics.

    38. Over time, a type of plant called Darwin’s orchid has evolved a long, 28 cm nectar tube on its flowers. A particular species of moth pollinates the Darwin’s orchid. Which of the following evolutionary changes was most likely favored in the moth because of its relationship with the Darwin’s orchid? A. faster flying speeds in the moths B. larger average size of the moths’ eyes C. longer average length of the moths’ tongues D. more elaborate mating behaviors in the moths

    39. Over time, a type of plant called Darwin’s orchid has evolved a long, 28 cm nectar tube on its flowers. A particular species of moth pollinates the Darwin’s orchid. Which of the following evolutionary changes was most likely favored in the moth because of its relationship with the Darwin’s orchid? C. longer average length of the moths’ tongues

    40. In 2006, scientists discovered fossilized skeletons of an animal with several interesting features. Fossil evidence indicated that the animal not only had scales, fins, and gills, but also had lungs, a full set of ribs, and limb bones arranged to support the animal’s weight. The illustration below shows what the animal, called Tiktaalik, probably looked like based on the fossil evidence. Which of the following statements best explains why the Tiktaalik fossils are an important piece of evidence for evolution? A. They include skeletons of both males and females. B. They are complete skeletons of a carnivorous animal. C. They allow scientists to estimate the animal’s lifespan. D. They show a transitional form between fish and land-dwelling vertebrates

    41. Fossil evidence indicated that the animal not only had scales, fins, and gills, but also had lungs, a full set of ribs, and limb bones arranged to support the animal’s weight. The illustration below shows what the animal, called Tiktaalik, probably looked like based on the fossil evidence. Which of the following statements best explains why the Tiktaalik fossils are an important piece of evidence for evolution? D. They show a transitional form between fish and land-dwelling vertebrates

    42. Until recently, the myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler were thought to be separate species of birds because the males have very different appearances. Which of the following observations most likely led to the reclassification of these warblers as one species? A. The myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler have the same diet. B. The myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler lay the same number of eggs. C. The myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler have overlapping geographical ranges. D. The myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

    43. Until recently, the myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler were thought to be separate species of birds because the males have very different appearances. Which of the following observations most likely led to the reclassification of these warblers as one species? D. The myrtle warbler and the Audubon’s warbler interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

    44. In the deserts of the southwestern United States, rock formations made from lava flows are found scattered across the sand. The rock pocket mouse, which has dark fur, lives on the black lava rocks. The Apache pocket mouse, which has light fur, lives on the tan sand. Which of the following statements best explains how these two types of mice could have evolved from a common ancestor? A. Individual mice changed their fur color to escape their predators. B. Natural selection favored different fur colors in the different habitats. C. The emigration of mice changed the gene pools in the original population. D. The original population of mice spread out geographically to relieve overcrowding.

    45. In the deserts of the southwestern United States, rock formations made from lava flows are found scattered across the sand. The rock pocket mouse, which has dark fur, lives on the black lava rocks. The Apache pocket mouse, which has light fur, lives on the tan sand. Which of the following statements best explains how these two types of mice could have evolved from a common ancestor? B. Natural selection favored different fur colors in the different habitats.

    46. The scientific name for the woodchuck is Marmota monax, and the scientific name for the long-tailed marmot is Marmota caudata. Which of the following statements describes the taxonomic relationship between the woodchuck and the long-tailed marmot? A. They belong to different phyla. B. They belong to the same genus. C. They belong to the same species. D. They belong to different families.

    47. The scientific name for the woodchuck is Marmotamonax, and the scientific name for the long-tailed marmot is Marmotacaudata. Which of the following statements describes the taxonomic relationship between the woodchuck and the long-tailed marmot? B. They belong to the same genus. There names tell you it is the genus Marmota

    48. The bones that make up the forelimbs of monkeys, cats, whales, and birds are similar. Which of the following statements best supports the evolutionary relationship of these animals? A. The animals have different ancestries but have adapted to similar environments. B. The animals share a common ancestry but have adapted to different environments. C. The animals at one time lived in different environments but now share an environment. D. The animals use their forelimbs for identical activities but live in different environments.

    49. The bones that make up the forelimbs of monkeys, cats, whales, and birds are similar. Which of the following statements best supports the evolutionary relationship of these animals? B. The animals share a common ancestry but have adapted to different environments.

    50. A population is separated into two groups by a geographic barrier. Over time, enough differences develop between the two groups that they do not interbreed when reunited. Which of the following terms best describes the process that has occurred? A. extinction B. hybridization C. immigration D. speciation