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Reformation Ideas Spread: The English Reformation and the Catholic Reformation
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  1. Reformation Ideas Spread: The English Reformation and the Catholic Reformation HWH UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1.4

  2. Anabaptists • Rejected infant baptism • Rejected violence • Advocated separating church and state • Munster, 1534-1535

  3. King Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547)

  4. “Defender of the Faith” • Defense of the Seven Sacraments • Leo X • Devout advisors • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (1475-1530) • Thomas More (1478-1535)

  5. Henry and His Wives Mary I Elizabeth I Edward VI

  6. Henry’s Wives… • #1: Catherine of Aragon (m. 1509-1533) • Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella • Aunt of Charles V • Had a daughter, Mary… • …but no son • Annulment?

  7. Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) • Archbishop of Canterbury • Advised the split with Rome

  8. #2: Anne Boleyn (m. 1533-1536) • Secretly married to Henry in 1533 • Already six months pregnant with Elizabeth • The Act of Supremacy (1534) • Established the Church of England (Anglican Church) • Henry was the head of the church • All Roman Catholic lands and monasteries were confiscated • 25% of all land in England • Thomas More would not convert • Anne was executed in 1536

  9. Anglican Doctrine Under Henry • The Six Articles (1539) • Maintained almost all of Catholic doctrine • Henry, not the pope, was the authority • The doctrine of the Anglican Church will be in flux until the late 17th century

  10. #3: Jane Seymour (m. 1536-1537) • Had a son, Edward (VI) • Died from complications of childbirth

  11. #4: Anne of Cleves (m. 1540) • German • Ugly • Divorced

  12. #5: Kathryn Howard (m. 1540-1542) • 30 years younger than Henry • Cheated • Executed

  13. #6: Katherine Parr (m. 1543-1547) • Outlived Henry

  14. King Edward VI (r. 1547-1553)

  15. Moved the Anglican church toward Calvinism • Book of Common Prayer (1549—Cranmer) • Somewhat Calvinist • Advisors were Protestant • Communicated directly with Calvin • Changes: • Clergy could marry • Salvation by faith alone • Only baptism and communion • Iconic images removed from churches • Denied transubstantiation

  16. Burial place of Edward VI, Westminster Abbey, London

  17. Queen Mary I (r. 1553-1558) • CATHOLIC • 1st daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon • Married Philip II of Spain • Executed Cranmer and other Protestants • “Bloody Mary”

  18. Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)

  19. The “Elizabethan Settlement” • Two Extremes—Elizabeth took the middle road • Catholics • Puritans • Undid Mary’s anti-Protestant laws • Made Elizabeth head of the Church of England • Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer • Made moderate Protestantism the official religion

  20. The Church of England under Elizabeth • Two Sacraments • Clergy could not marry • Catholicism tolerated (in private) • Mandatory attendance at church • No monasteries • Mass given in English

  21. The Counter (or Catholic) Reformation

  22. Rome’s Response to the Reformation • Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549) • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)and the Jesuits • Spiritual Exercises (1522-24) • Focus: education and conversion

  23. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) • Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549) • Conclusions: • Reaffirmed Catholic doctrine • Ended corruption within the clergy • Pluralism • Absenteeism • Sale of indulgences • More education for clergy

  24. The Roman Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books