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  1. SOCIAL STUDIES OVERVIEW Dr. Bill Cranshaw Social Studies Specialist Curriculum and Instruction Georgia Department of Education

  2. Topics for discussion • Social Studies GPS overview • Rollout & training plan • Conceptual Teaching & Unit Design • What’s next? • What if we …

  3. Curriculum Overview • K-3 Foundations for the study of U.S. history • 4th-5th U.S. history (survey) • 6th-7th introduction to the contemporary world with essential historical background • 8th Georgia Studies (SBOE rule 160-4-2-.07) • 9th-12th U.S. History, World History, Economics, American Government, World Geography

  4. K-5 Social Studies at a Glance

  5. Middle School Social Studies

  6. 6th & 7th grade • Organization • By regions • Then by strands • Retains QCC division of regions • History theme • Not history of the world • What does a student in 6th or 7th grade need to understand about a region’s history to understand that region today?

  7. Skills Matrix • Begins in Kindergarten • Mastery as indicated, but completed before end of middle school • Terms • I = introduce, basic exposure • D = develop, teach use of skill, practice with content materials • M = mastery, student can use skill independently • A = apply, student continues to use and develop proficiency in skill

  8. A: indicates grade levels where students will continue to apply and improve mastered skills

  9. High School Social Studies Courses • History of the United States • Colonial to modern period • World History • Ancient civilizations to modern period • World Geography • American Government • Economics • Fundamentals, Micro, Macro, International, & Personal Finance

  10. High School Social Studies Courses • US History starts with colonial settlement • Age of Exploration in 4th, 8th, and World History • Native Americans and Meso-American cultures, 4th, 8th, World History • World History • must include what is important to a people’s history, not our perceptions of what is important • Considering making this course required for all students

  11. High School Social Studies Courses • American Government/Civics • Will replace the two courses on the list of state funded course when GPS implemented for high school • Civics/Citizenship (9th-10th grade) • American Government (11th-12th grade) • American Government/Civics taught at any grade

  12. High School Social Studies Courses • Use of AP courses to meet graduation requirements • List of state funded courses (SBOE 160-4-2-.03) • Courses that can be used • AP US History • AP American Government • AP Micro Econ • AP Macro Econ • AP World History

  13. SSGPS Rollout & Training Concept

  14. Rollout Training for Social Studies • Training is 4 phases of 2 years • SS is Phases 3 & 4 • Training years • Year 1: Teacher preparation • Year 2: Teaching of the new GPS • Testing begins with Year 2 of each phase • Phase 3: 2006-2008 6th – 12th • Phase 4: 2007-2009 K – 5th

  15. Social Studies Phase-In Plan

  16. Training Plan • Current training • 8 days • Yr 1: days 1-5—teacher preparation • Yr 2: days 6-8—specific strategies (differentiation) • Social Studies Training • Advantage of time • Will include Conceptual Teaching • Probably be 7 days, but could change


  18. Conceptual Teaching&Unit Design

  19. Supporting Background • Wiggins & McTighe (Understanding by Design) • Marzano (What works in Schools) • Carol Ann Tomlinson (Differentiation) • Max Thompson (LFS) • Stephen Covey (7 Habits) • National Research Council: How Students Learn History in the Classroom

  20. Unit Design&Conceptual Teaching • Unit design focuses on learning through teaching concepts • Knowledge and skills are learned as they relate to concepts • Provides schema or scaffolding for students to place knowledge • Should develop from students previous knowledge

  21. Where to Begin? • Historians work with big questions, so to engage students teachers should do the same thing • Problems • Teachers are to teach history others have written • Students are tested for accountability • Teachers are provided with a list of information the student is to know

  22. Where to Begin? • Curriculum does not provide nor is it organized by big picture ideas (connections) • Necessary for students to build connections • Schema theory • Brain based learning • Learning Focused Schools • Understanding by Design • All use idea of essential questions, conceptual learning

  23. A Game of Jeopardy for teachers • Identify larger concept that are answered by the curriculum objectives • Work backwards (unpack the standards) • Develop historiographic problems that cross standards (enduring understandings) • Provide students with concepts upon which to hang the knowledge and skills required by curricular objectives

  24. Ideas on How To • Teacher needs to identify • What is historically significant • Not prioritizing the curriculum • Relates to big picture (enduring understandings) • What is instructive for and interesting to students? • What engages a students curiosity? • Help students learn to question historical accounts • Was the Trojan War a real historical event?

  25. Goal • Teach students the facts, stories, while at the same time providing a background against which to place the facts. • Develop in students the ability to read, criticize, and evaluate the stories of history and the use of facts • Educate students to be historically literate • Ability to evaluate historical arguments, and make decisions given evidence regarding those arguments which is the most plausible

  26. Terms: Enduring Understanding • Larger concepts, principles, or processes within a domain • Applicable to new situations within or beyond the content • Basis of conceptual teaching • Provide scaffolding • Standards provide specificity to concepts • Example: • Student will understand that constitutions establish the rationale for, purpose of, and structure of a system of government

  27. Terms: Standards & Elements • Standard: What a student is to know, understand and be able to do • Elements: expand and specific the standard • Only standards and elements are testable • If it is not in standard or element, not on test • Help students grasp Enduring Understandings • Georgia Performance Standards

  28. Broad, overarching. Go to heart of discipline Reoccur natural in the discipline No obvious right answer Raise other important questions Example Is the US federal system and effective form of government? Do constitutions reflect the philosophy and beliefs of the people governed? Unit, content specific Related to specific aspects of content Frame specific set of lessons or unit May be answered as result of lesson, may not have a “right” answer Example What governmental structure was established by the US constitution? Terms: Essential Questions

  29. Knowledge Factual material a student is expected to learn Material that is testable Provides facts that help students understand concepts Taken directly from standard and elements Skills Specific skills related to discipline students are expect to learn and become proficient in their use Are to be integrated in to the instructional unit, not taught in isolation Taken from skills matrix Terms

  30. Standards Based Education Model Stage 1: Identify Desired Results What do I want my students to know and be able to do? Big Ideas  Enduring Understandings  Essential Questions --------------------------------------- Standards Above, plus Skills and Knowledge Elements GPS Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence (Design Balanced Assessments) How will I know if my students know it and/or can do it? (to assess student progress toward desired results) All Above, plus Tasks Student Work Teacher Commentary Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction What will need to be done to help my students learn the required knowledge and skills? (to support student success on assessments, leading to desired results) All Above

  31. Standards and Elements • SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. • a. explain Virginia’s development, including the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery • b. describe the settlement of New England, including religious reasons; relations with Native Americans, e.g., King Phillip’s War; the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature; religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island; the half- way covenant; Salem Witch Trials; and the loss of the Massachusetts charter • c. explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies, including the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania • d. explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec

  32. Stage 1: Identifying Concepts • What are some major themes in this standard? • Conflict and compromise • Native Americans and colonists • African-Americans and colonists • Religious conflicts and toleration • Political development and relations with Great Britain • Migration • Free migration • Forced migration • Development of self-governance • Massachusetts Bay Colony • House of Burgesses

  33. Standards and Elements SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics including the slave of Nat Turner, and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas and the Grimke sisters) b. explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories c. describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology, including the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism d. describe war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso e. explain the Compromise of 1850

  34. Stage 1: Identifying Concepts • What are some major themes in this standard? • Conflict and Compromise • States rights & nullification • Compromise 1820 & 1850 • slavery • Migration • Expansion of US territory (compromises and war with Mexico) • States Rights • Sectionalism • slavery

  35. From Big Ideas toEnduring Understandings • What theme could tie these two standards together? • Students will understand that migration of people into a new area produces a need for compromise on the part of all groups and when that compromise is not possible conflict occurs • Overarching: More abstract and general; relate to many units of study

  36. From Big Ideas toEnduring Understandings • Focus specifically on a unit using same general concepts • Topical: More specific; related to a single unit • EX: Students will understand that expansion of the United States (migration) between 1830 and 1850 and the failure of compromise over that expansion contributed to the Civil War (conflict) • EX: Students will understand that the Civil War (conflict) occurred when compromise over states rights and slavery was no longer an option between north and south as the United States expanded Westward (migration)

  37. From Understandings to Questions • Students will understand that migration of people into a new area produces a need for compromise on the part of all groups and when that compromise is not possible conflict occurs • ESSENTIAL QUESTION: • What are the factors that lead to a failure of compromise when a group of people migrate to a new area? • Does a failure of compromise necessarily lead to conflict? • How did the migration of Americans westward lead to a need to compromise regarding slavery and states rights? • What factors led to a failure of attempts to compromise as new states were created through westward expansion?

  38. From Understandings to Questions • Students will understand that the Civil War (conflict) occurred when compromise over states rights and slavery was no longer an option between north and south as the United States expanded Westward (migration) • ESSENTIAL QUESTION • What issues led to a need to compromise to admit new states to the Union? • What factors contributed to the failure of compromise during the period 1830-1850? • How did the migration of Americans westward contribute to the need for compromise?

  39. Knowledge & Skills • Knowledge is taken from the standard and elements • Example: Compromise 1820, 1850, abolitionism • For QCC use content descriptions • Skills • Select those skills wish to emphasize from skills matrix • Include both map & globe and info processing

  40. Stage 2: Identifying How Students Will Demonstrate Understanding • How will my students demonstrate the understanding of the concept(s), knowledge, and skills? • Use a variety of assessments • Tasks are one form • Should be designed as culminating activity (LFS)

  41. What is a Task? • Task is a way for students to demonstrate their grasp of a concept • Most likely a culminating activity • Is one form of evaluating student learning • Does not replace other forms of evaluation • May be formative or summative

  42. Brainstorm: What evidence would be sufficient? • Understanding of • the concept of states’ rights views as held by John C. Calhoun • the position as presented by Daniel Webster as an American ( not part of standard) • the compromised proposed by Henry Clay and the rationale for the compromise ( not part of standard) • the relationship between states’ rights and the admission of California as a state • Explain the concerns of southerners and northerners regarding the admission of California

  43. Example task • You are a member of the U.S. Senate from a northern state. John C. Calhoun was brought into the Senate to hear his speech read, Henry Clay spoke for two days, and Daniel Webster has also spoken. You have been asked by your constituents to summarize what transpired and provide your opinion on the issue facing the United States. Write an explanation of your stance on states’ rights your opinion of the Compromise plan and John C. Calhoun’s prediction.

  44. Concepts and Tasks • Concepts • Should stretch across grade levels • May encompass multiple standards and disciplines of Social Studies • Tasks • Vary according to grade level • May build from grade to grade

  45. What’s next?

  46. Plains Task Writing Workshops • June 19-24, ’05 Middle & High School • wrote draft enduring understandings and tasks • Presently revising and editing • 05-06, teachers who wrote to pilot some tasks • June 2006 will finalize and prepare for training • Will have session at GCSS in Oct 06 • Elementary • Will start this process June 2006

  47. Training: Middle and High School • Will develop this year • Start fall 2006 • Focus • Conceptual teaching • Unit design • Duration probably 7 days over 2 years

  48. WHAT IF WE…

  49. What if we … • Shared concepts with students? • Purpose of concept is to help students understand the relationship of historical, geographic, economic, or governmental ideas • Schema theory, need scaffolding to hang information on • Concepts provide scaffolding