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Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell

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Basic Structure of a Cell

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  1. Basic Structure of a Cell

  2. CELL THEORY • All living things are made of cells • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function • Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division)

  3. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Animal Cell Plant Cell

  4. white blood cell Amoeba red blood cell muscle cell sperm cheek cells nerve cell Paramecium Differentkinds of animal cells

  5. Examples of Animal Cells Red blood cells Cheek cells Muscle cells

  6. Proteins Cell membrane Protein channel Lipid bilayer Cell or Plasma Membrane(2,5) • Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins • Surrounds outside of ALL cells • Controls what enters or leaves the cell – selectively permeable

  7. Cytoplasm • Jelly-like substance • Found in ALL cells • Contains organelles • Provides a place for chemical reactionsto take place

  8. Nucleus(12,15) • Controls the activities of the cell • Contains DNA in chromosomes • Genes control cell characteristics

  9. Nuclear Envelope/Membrane • Double membrane surrounding nucleus • Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus Nuclear pores

  10. Inside the Nucleus(14,16) The genetic material (DNA) is found DNA is condensed & wrapped around proteins forming as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells DNA is spread out And appears as CHROMATINin non-dividing cells

  11. Nucleolus(13,14) • Inside nucleus • Makes ribosomesthat make proteins

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER • Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane • Functions in Synthesis of cell products & Transport Two kinds of ER ---ROUGH & SMOOTH

  13. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)(11,11) • Has ribosomeson its surface • Makes membrane proteins • TRANSPORT proteins out of cell

  14. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(7,1) • Smooth ERlacks ribosomes • Makes membrane lipids (steroids) • Regulates calcium (muscle cells) • Detoxic substances (Liver)

  15. Ribosomes(10,10) • Made of PROTEINS • “Protein factories” for cell • Join amino acids to make proteins • Process called protein synthesis 

  16. Ribosomes Can be attached to Rough ER OR Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm

  17. Golgi Bodies (8,12) • Stacks of flattened sacs (PANCAKES) • Modify, sort, & package molecules for storage OR transport out of cell • Vesicles pinch off the ends CIS TRANS vesicle

  18. Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES

  19. Lysosomes(3,7) • Contain digestive enzymes • Break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts

  20. Cytoskeleton(5,6) • Helps cell maintain cell shape • Also help move organelles around • Made of proteins • Ex. Microfilaments • Ex. Microtubules

  21. Mitochondrion(plural = mitochondria)(4,3) • “Powerhouse” of the cell • Generate cellular energy (ATP) • Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION • Has its own DNA • What kind of cells would have MORE mitochondria?

  22. What do mitochondria do? “Power plant” of the cell Burns glucose to release energy (ATP) Stores energy as ATP

  23. Cilia & Flagella • Function in moving cells and movement of particles across a membrane • Cilia -short and many (spirit fingers) • Flagella - longer and fewer (ex sperm tail)

  24. Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella

  25. Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the LungsRespiratory System

  26. Centrioles (1) • Found only in animalcells • Made of bundle of microtubules • Appear during cell division • Help to pull chromosomes apart

  27. Centrioles & the Mitotic Spindle

  28. Vacuoles (8) • Storage of wastes, water, and nutrients • Small or absent in animal cells • Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole • No vacuoles in bacterial cells

  29. Plant Cell

  30. Onion Epidermal Cells Guard Cells root hair Root Hair Cell Different kinds of plant cells

  31. Examples of Plant cells Guard Cells Pollen Xylem cells

  32. Cell Wall (4) • Supportsandprotectscell • Found outside of the cell membrane • Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria • cellulose in plants • peptidoglycan in bacteria • chitin in Fungi

  33. Chloroplasts (9) • Plant cells ONLY • Contain chlorophyll • Photosynthesis – (energy from sunlight makes food (glucose) • Contains its own DNA

  34. Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Irregular shape Regular shape No cell wall Cell wall present Have chloroplast No chloroplast Large central vacuole Vacuole small or absent Glycogen as food storage Starch as food storage


  36. Cell Types • Cells can only be observed under microscope • Three Basic types of cells include: Bacterial Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell

  37. Number of Cells Although ALL living things are made of cells, organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize into tissues, etc.

  38. Prokaryotes • Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles • Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA • Single, circular chromosome • Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall • Contain ribosomes • E.x. bacteria

  39. Eukaryotes • Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Contain 3 basic cell structures: • Nucleus • Cell Membrane • Cytoplasm with organelles • E.x. protists, fungi, plants, and animals


  41. Which Cell Type is Larger? _________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cell Animal cell bacteria

  42. Cell Size Question:Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse?

  43. Factors Affecting Cell Size • Surface area (plasma membrane surface) is determined by multiplying length times width (L x W) • Volume of a cell is determined by multiplying length times width times height (L x W x H) • Therefore, Volume increases FASTER than the surface area

  44. Cell Size • When the surface area is no longer great enough to get rid of all the wastes and to get in enough food and water, then the cell must divide • Therefore, the cells of an organism are close in size

  45. Cell Size Question:Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? About the same size, but … The elephant has MANY MORE cells than a mouse!