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Structure of the Cell. Greg Dolgushin Harvard SIG 2013. History of Cell Theory. CITOLOGY ( cito - and –logos- ) – the science about the cell Hooke , Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow All living things or organisms are made of cells and their products

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Structure of the cell

Structure of the Cell

Greg Dolgushin

Harvard SIG 2013

History of cell theory
History of Cell Theory

CITOLOGY(cito- and –logos-) – the science about the cell

Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow

All living things or organisms are made of cells and their products

New cells are created by old cells dividing into two

Cells are the basic building units of life

Basic principles of modern cell theory
Basic principles of modern cell theory

  • All known living things are made up of one or more cells

  • All living cells arise from pre-existing cells by division

  • The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms

  • The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells

  • Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells

  • Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division

  • All cells are basically the same in chemical composition in organisms of similar species

Structure of the cell

Cells number

  • Human:

  • 100 trillions

  • Human gut:

  • 300-1000 types of bacteria

  • ~1015of bacteria: ten-fold more than human cells

Structure of the cell

Eucariot and Procariot Cells

Structure of the cell

Plant Cell




  • Mitochondrions



Cell wall

from cellulose



Structure of the cell

No membrane


One membrane

Two membrane


  • Mitochondrions



Cell center

  • Golgi apparatus

  • Lysosomes

Cytoplasm and Organelles (Organoids)

Cytoplasm – semiliquid cell’s medium, which consists of water and proteins. It moves with the speed up to7 cм/hour

Organoids - constant cell structures, that provide the functions of the cell

  • Plastids


  • Nucleus

  • Flagellums

  • and cilia

  • Vacuoles

Structure of the cell

Cell Membrane

Cell membrane is


film from two

monomolecular layers

of lipids and a layer of

protein between them

Functions of membrane:

  • Barrier

  • Transport

  • Protection

  • Metabolism with cell environment

  • Cell-to-cell “dialog”

Structure of the cell


Functions of nucleus:

  • Storage of genetical information

  • Regulation of cell metabolism

Structure of the cell

Endoplasmic reticulum

Functions of ER:

  • Synthesis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

  • Storage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

  • Connection between organoids

  • Lipids and carbohydrates synthesis

  • Cell membrane synthesis

  • Transport of different substances to the cell

  • Protein synthesis

  • Cell membrane synthesis

  • Transport of different substances out of the cell

  • Lysosoms, spherosomes synthesis

Structure of the cell


Non-membrane fungiform structure of big and small units, which consists of RNA and proteins

Functions of ribosomes:

  • Protein synthesis

Structure of the cell


Number in one cell - from units to several thousands

All mitochondrions=chondriome

Diameter=0.5 – 1.0 micrones

Length=1 -7-10 micrones

  • Functions of mitochondrions:

  • respiratory center of the cell

  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis (due to oxidative phosphorylation) → energy support of the cell

Modern technologiesMitochondrial genes transfer

Structure of the cell

  • Functions of GA:

  • Storage and transport of substances, their chemical modernization

  • Secretory function

  • Lysosomes synthesis

  • Lipids and carbohydrates synthesis

Camillo Golgi (1897)

Structure: protein subunits

Functions of microtubules:

  • Cytoskeleton formation

  • Centrioles, flagellums and cilia formation

  • Contribute to intracellular movement

  • Microtubulles

Structure of the cell

  • Functions of lysosomes:

  • Protection

  • Heterophagy: treatment of foreign substances, that come to the cell due pinocytosis or phagocytosis

  • Intracellular digestion

  • Endogenic nutrition : in condition of starvation they digest some cytoplasmic structures

Structure of the cell

  • The cavities in cytoplasm

  • Reservoir with cell cellular fluid, nutrients, and metabolites

  • Cellular fluid – liquid with diluted sugars and mineral salts

  • With vacuoles growth the cell is growing (increases in sizes)

  • Functions of vacuoles:

  • Regulation of cell’s pressure

  • Storage of nutrients and metabolits

Structure of the cell

They are energetic stations of the plant cell. They can transform to other kinds of plastids.


  • photosynthesis

  • biosynthesis

Structure of the cell

3 groups of elements:

  • Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen - 98% of all structure

  • Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Sulfur, Chlorine – tenth and hundredth % parts

  • Microelements- hundredth and thousandth % parts

Structure of the cell

  • All alive organisms consist of cells

  • Cell is one of structural functional and replicative elements of alive medium

  • Cells of all unicellular and multicellular organisms are similar in their structure, chemical compound, basic signs of vital activity and metabolism