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Strategy-Based Instruction. Metacognition: The “Boss”. Cognition: the “Worker” . Strategies: the “Tools” . Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings , 2002. Learning. Real-World Knowledge (Content)   Strategy Knowledge (Knowing how to learn)   Metacognitive Knowledge

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strategy based instruction
Strategy-Based Instruction

Metacognition: The “Boss”

Cognition: the “Worker”

Strategies: the “Tools”

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

learning
Learning
  • Real-World Knowledge
  • (Content)
  •   Strategy Knowledge
  • (Knowing how to learn)
  •   Metacognitive Knowledge
  • (Awareness and regulation of cognitive processes)

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

basic cognitive processes
Basic Cognitive Processes
  • Attending to incoming information
  • Getting information into short-term memory
  • Getting information into long-term memory
  • Retrieving information from long- term memory

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

metacognitive processes
Metacognitive Processes
  • Knowing your learning processes
  • Selecting appropriate learning strategies
  • Monitoring how learning strategy is working

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

curriculum must
CURRICULUM MUST
  • Be designed to incorporate the prerequisites of learning
  • Information must be accessible
  • Support for the development of skills must be available
  • Learner must perceive the learning to be important

Research Connections In Special Education, Fall 1999 #5 CEC

Diana Browning Wright, DCS 2002

universal design
UNIVERSAL DESIGN
  • The design of the instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goal achievable by individuals with a wide difference in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember.
    • Built in, not added on!

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)

Diana Browning Wright, DCS 2002

universal access
UNIVERSAL ACCESS

Six Principles for Effective Curriculum Design

  • Big Ideas: Concepts, principles, or heuristics that facilitate the most efficient and broad acquisition of knowledge.
  • Conspicuous Strategies: Useful steps for accomplishing a goal or task.
  • Mediated Scaffolding: Instructional guidance provided by teachers, peers, materials, or tasks.
  • Strategies Integration: Integrating knowledge as a means of promoting higher-level cognition.
  • Judicious Review: Structured opportunities to recall or apply previously taught information.
  • Primed Background Knowledge: Preexisting information that affects new learning.

Research Connections In Special Education, Fall 1999 #5 CEC

Diana Browning Wright, DCS 2002

slide8

What works with struggling students?

More Time:preview, review, elaborate, another way, etc.

More Intensity:smaller group allows more focus, more student responding/engagement

More Feedback:teacher is able to target instruction,

“dial in” specific needs, prompt elaboration,

provide alternate examples, etc.

** this can only be done 1-1 or in small homogenous groups**

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide9

Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Kids

student with reading difficulties require

qualitatively different reading instruction (e.g. reading

styles, perceptual training, colored lens, etc.)

struggling readers are far more

successful when carefully taught the same fundamental

reading skills all readers must learn BUT with:

 more instructional time  more precisely sequenced instruction

 more coaching & practice  more explicit/direct instruction

 more careful progress monitoring/program adjustment

WHAT WE THOUGHT:

WHAT WE NOW KNOW:

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide10

Grouping: Issues & Options

  • We need BOTHhomogeneous ANDheterogeneous options
  • depends on the purpose/subject/range of prior knowledge
    • Skills-Based Lessons - usually best to group by need
  • e.g. - Word study/Spelling by level
  • - Decoding/guided reading instruction & practice
  • ** Groups need to be flexible/change in a day - fluid
  • as student needs change
    • Conceptual/Content-based lessonsusually best in hetero-
  • geneous groups: diverse experience/views etc. enrich
  • e.g. - Science, Social Studies, Core Literature
  • WITH plenty of scaffolded instruction(e.g. Graphics, partners)

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide11

What Does Explicit Engaging

Instruction Look Like?

  • gain attention & clearly model
  • cue students to notice critical aspects of the model
  • model thinking too - “mental modeling/direct explanation”

I DO IT

    • Provide Thinking Time
    • Structure/prompt engagement:
  •  choral responses if answer/response is short/same
  •  partner responses if answer/response is long/different
  •  correction/feedback - remodeling, more examples, etc.

WE DO IT

 individual responses; oral, written, point/touch/demo

 coaching students to apply the strategy previously taught

YOU DO IT

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide12

Participation Enhancement to Increase Student Engagement

1. Choral Responses (answers are short/same)

- students cue you they are attending (“eyes on me”)

- provide thinking time

- signal group response

2. Every Pupil Response Techniques (answers are short/different)

- student answers with gestures or answer card

3. Partner Responses (answers long/different)

- teacher assigns - provide a label/role “1’s tell 2’s”

- alternate ranking for partnering

- specific topics/jobs - no one is passive

4. Written Responses

- list first, then share

- touch something - “put your finger on the ______”

5. Individual Responses (AFTER practice on the new skill)

- randomly call on individuals to share

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide13

Input/Participation Enhancement

Comprehension instruction: PALS

Paragraph Shrinking: Summarization/Paraphrasing

- stronger reader reads a paragraph

- weaker reader prompts them to:

1. Name the Who or What.

* identification

2. Tell the most important thing(s) about the Who or What.

* elaboration

3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less

(paraphrasing “straight jacket”)

* consolidation

* continues for 5 minutes - then switch roles (new text)

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide14

Input/Participation Enhancement

  • Differentiating During Whole Class Instruction Options include:
    • Small group instruction - based on student needs
    • Partner Models: informal, formalized (e.g. PALS)
  • - e.g. Different texts for each pair
    • Scaffolded Instruction (e.g. Participation structures)
    • Graphic Organizers - Visual Thinking - vary the
  • support (e.g. Partially filled out, partner dialogue)
    • Projects - Individual & Small Group
  • - key is organization/structure
  • ~ rubrics ~ touch points along the way

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

slide15

Input Enhancement

Using graphic organizers when teaching content…

Makes information easier to understand

Separates the important from the trivial

Focuses on big ideas

Organization of ideas is self-evident to students

Reduces information processing demands needed to

understand new information

Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002

content enhancement input
Content Enhancement (Input)
  • Use strategies and scaffolds
  • - to accommodate diverse learners
  • Accommodation
  • - a service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction
  • - a service or support to help validly demonstrate knowledge

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002 Nolet (2000)

advance organizers
Advance Organizers

These are pre-instructional materials designed to enhance student’s linkage of new information with prior knowledge stored in long-term memory. Advance organizers may be verbal, written, or be presented in a question format. Examples could include, questions presented prior to a discussion or reading assignment, vocabulary words presented on the board or a handout, or verbal statements presented by the teacher designed to activate knowledge prior to instruction.

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002 Nolet (2000)

visual displays
Visual Displays

These include diagrams, concrete models, videos, or digital material designed to portray the relationships among various pieces of information presented during instruction. Visual displays are intended to help students organize information in long-term memory as well as to activate prior knowledge during instruction. They function as an accommodation to the extent that they scaffold the creation of linkages among information in the learner’s long-term memory. Examples could include diagrams, graphic organizers, concept maps, or video segments intended to anchor or situate the student’s learning (Harley, 1996) in a meaningful context.

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002 Nolet (2000)

study guides
Study Guides

These consist of worksheets that are provided to the student prior to a reading or study assignment. They include a set of statements or questions intended to focus the student’s attention and cognitive resources on the key information to be learned. Study guides can take the form of completed or partially completed outlines, questions focusing on the textual, literal, and inferential aspects of a study assignment, or various other tasks designed to prompt the active processing of the material to be studied.

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002 Nolet (2000)

mnemonic devices
Mnemonic Devices

These are techniques that assist in the storage and recall of declarative knowledge associated with content domains. Mnemonics may be verbal or pictorial and may be provided by the teacher or developed collaboratively by the teacher and the student. Most teachers are familiar with some of the common examples of mnemonics such as the use of key words, pictures, or symbols. ROY G BIV and Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge are classic mnemonic devices.

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002 Nolet (2000)

peer mediated instruction
Peer-Mediated Instruction

Here students are employed within the classroom as instructional agents. This form of content enhancement includes peer and cross-age tutoring, various forms of classwide tutoring, and cooperative learning. The primary purpose of peer-mediated instruction is to increase the number of opportunities for distributed practice with feedback. Usually, this approach entails fairly well-scripted or structured interactions designed and mediated by the teacher.

Diana Browning Wright, Behavior/Discipline Trainings, 2002 Nolet (2000)