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## Strategy Instruction

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**Strategy Instruction**• Is STUDENT centered and teaches students how to learn information and then retrieve that information when it is needed. • The focus is primarily on the rules and the processes or global skills required to learn the required concept.**Direct Instruction**• Direct instruction is a teacher centered instructional approach that is most effective for teaching basic or isolated skills (Kroesbergen & Van Luit, 2003). • can be a scripted program that is very systematic with a step by step format requiring student mastery at each step. • generally fast paced instruction and often used with a small group of students. http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/documents/DirectInstructionMathApplicationFinal_000.pdf**Swanson (2001) identified 12 criteria associated with**direct instruction. When any four of these indicators are present, direct instruction is occurring: • Breaking down a task into small steps • Administering probes • Administering feedback repeatedly • Providing a pictorial or diagram presentation • Allowing indep practice and individ paced instruction • Breaking instruction down into simpler phases • Instructing in a small group • Teacher modeling a skill • Providing set materials at a rapid pace • Providing individ child instruction • Teacher asking questions • Teacher presenting the new (novel) materials (Swanson, 2001, p. 4)**According to researchers, using a combination of direct**instruction and strategy instruction has a greater positive effect than either method alone • Teaching basic skills to students through direct instruction and then teaching them strategies to store and retrieve the information will ensure a successful educational experience for all students (Ellis, 1993; Karp & Voltz, 2000; Swanson, 2001)**According to Swanson (2001), strategy instruction has**several components: • Advanced organizers (mental scaffolding) • Organization (have students assess own understanding ) • Elaboration (connecting new material to info already learned) • Generative learning (making sense of new info by summarizing) • General study strategies (outlining, questioning, discussions with peers, and underlining)**Strategy instruction follows a sequence of events:**• States the objective • Review skills needed for new info • Present the new info/skill • Question students about events • Provide time for group instruction and indep practice • Give performance assessments (Swanson, 2001)**Strategy Instruction**What Does Strategy/Implicit Instruction Look Like for Mathematics? • The object of strategy instruction is to teach students to use higher-order thinking skills, to problem solve, and to use techniques that they can generalize into other areas.**The Problem**• Sara saved $12.85 from her allowance. At the beach, she spent $1.75 for an ice cream cone and $4.50 in the video arcade. She wants to buy a necklace that costs $5.00. Does she have enough money left to buy the necklace?**Think Aloud Problem Solving Process**Teacher Self-Dialogue What do they want me to find out? Hmmm…Does Sara have enough money to buy the necklace? How much does she need for the necklace? $5.00. I’ll write that down here. OK, she needs $5.00. How much did she start out with? Oh, $12.85. Well, she had enough to start out with, but she spent some of it. How much did she spend? She bought an ice cream cone for $1.75, and she spent $4.50 in the arcade. What do I do now? I guess there are two ways I could do this. I could subtract one amount from $12.85 and the other amount from what she had left, or I could add both of the amounts she spent and then subtract the total from $12.85.**Learning Strategies**What Are Learning Strategies? • Learning strategies are an individual’s approach to a task. • They are how a student organizes and uses a set of skills to learn content or to accomplish a particular task more effectively and efficiently either in or out of school (Schumaker & Deshler, 1984).**learning strategies include:**• what we think about (e.g., planning before writing • realizing when we are not understanding something we are reading • remembering what we have learned previously on the topic under study) • and what we physically do (e.g., taking notes, rereading to clear up confusion, making a chart, table, or story map to capture the most important information).”**Teachers who teach students learning strategies teach**students how to learn and how to be successful in and out of the academic setting. • Learning strategies give students a way to think through and plan the solution to a problem. • Students who use learning strategies become more effective and independent learners.**Two Types of Learning Strategies**• Cognitive • Learning how to read • Visualize • Estimate • Compute • Metacognitive • Self checking • Self questioning • Self monitoring**What Do Learning Strategies Look Like for Mathematics?**Cognitive learning strategies range from the simple to the complex and may include • Adding by counting on from the first addend or the larger addend • Using mnemonics • Understanding that two times any number will be even or that five times any number will always end in a zero or a 5 • Using a finger strategy for multiplying numbers less than 10 by 9**How to Implement Learning Strategies in the Classroom**Administrators should: • provide professional development about learning strategies and • monitor teachers to be sure that learning strategies are taught.**Teachers should:**• have a range of strategies from which to choose; • practice new strategies until they are comfortable with them; • explain why learning strategies are important as they teach them, which motivates students; • match strategies with the material; • model a variety of strategies in each class―different students may be more successful with different strategies; • consistently encourage students to use learning strategies in learning situations; • monitor students’ use of learning strategies to ensure they are using them correctly; and • encourage generalization to other subject areas.**ADHD and Mathematics**• Reading response**Classroom Accommodations**• Eliminate distractions • Review medications and the effect on the student • Be straightforward • Allow for time-out if a student needs it • Review directions in advance • Give undivided attention to the student • Allow for signaled response • Focus on what is said, not how well it is said • Listen patiently • Allow more time • Review lighting and background for appropriateness • Eliminate background noises**Classroom Accommodations**• Maximize availability of visual media and/or models • Clearly label items or equipment • Allow for direct manipulation of materials • Get feedback from student • Provide a reader when appropriate • Computer, circles, dictation when appropriate**References**• The Access Center Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8 • Kroesbergen, E. H., & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2003). Mathematical interventions for children with special educational needs. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 97–114. • Maccini, P., & Gagnon, J. C. (2000). Best practices for teaching mathematics to secondary students with special needs. Focus on Exceptional Children, 32, 1–22. • Swanson, H. L. (2001). Searching for the best model for instructing students with learning disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 34, 1–15 • Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1993). Special education for the twenty-first century:Integrating learning strategies and thinking skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26,392–398.**For Next Week**• Read: Steele, M. (2002). Strategies for helping students who have learning disabilities in mathematics. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 8, 140-143. • Project 4 due: Pre-CRA Assessment • Article related to culturally responsive teaching or secondary mathematics