Strategy Instruction • Is STUDENT centered and teaches students how to learn information and then retrieve that information when it is needed. • The focus is primarily on the rules and the processes or global skills required to learn the required concept.
Direct Instruction • Direct instruction is a teacher centered instructional approach that is most effective for teaching basic or isolated skills (Kroesbergen & Van Luit, 2003). • can be a scripted program that is very systematic with a step by step format requiring student mastery at each step. • generally fast paced instruction and often used with a small group of students. http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/documents/DirectInstructionMathApplicationFinal_000.pdf
Swanson (2001) identified 12 criteria associated with direct instruction. When any four of these indicators are present, direct instruction is occurring: • Breaking down a task into small steps • Administering probes • Administering feedback repeatedly • Providing a pictorial or diagram presentation • Allowing indep practice and individ paced instruction • Breaking instruction down into simpler phases • Instructing in a small group • Teacher modeling a skill • Providing set materials at a rapid pace • Providing individ child instruction • Teacher asking questions • Teacher presenting the new (novel) materials (Swanson, 2001, p. 4)
According to researchers, using a combination of direct instruction and strategy instruction has a greater positive effect than either method alone • Teaching basic skills to students through direct instruction and then teaching them strategies to store and retrieve the information will ensure a successful educational experience for all students (Ellis, 1993; Karp & Voltz, 2000; Swanson, 2001)
According to Swanson (2001), strategy instruction has several components: • Advanced organizers (mental scaffolding) • Organization (have students assess own understanding ) • Elaboration (connecting new material to info already learned) • Generative learning (making sense of new info by summarizing) • General study strategies (outlining, questioning, discussions with peers, and underlining)
Strategy instruction follows a sequence of events: • States the objective • Review skills needed for new info • Present the new info/skill • Question students about events • Provide time for group instruction and indep practice • Give performance assessments (Swanson, 2001)
Strategy Instruction What Does Strategy/Implicit Instruction Look Like for Mathematics? • The object of strategy instruction is to teach students to use higher-order thinking skills, to problem solve, and to use techniques that they can generalize into other areas.
The Problem • Sara saved $12.85 from her allowance. At the beach, she spent $1.75 for an ice cream cone and $4.50 in the video arcade. She wants to buy a necklace that costs $5.00. Does she have enough money left to buy the necklace?
Think Aloud Problem Solving Process Teacher Self-Dialogue What do they want me to find out? Hmmm…Does Sara have enough money to buy the necklace? How much does she need for the necklace? $5.00. I’ll write that down here. OK, she needs $5.00. How much did she start out with? Oh, $12.85. Well, she had enough to start out with, but she spent some of it. How much did she spend? She bought an ice cream cone for $1.75, and she spent $4.50 in the arcade. What do I do now? I guess there are two ways I could do this. I could subtract one amount from $12.85 and the other amount from what she had left, or I could add both of the amounts she spent and then subtract the total from $12.85.
Learning Strategies What Are Learning Strategies? • Learning strategies are an individual’s approach to a task. • They are how a student organizes and uses a set of skills to learn content or to accomplish a particular task more effectively and efficiently either in or out of school (Schumaker & Deshler, 1984).
learning strategies include: • what we think about (e.g., planning before writing • realizing when we are not understanding something we are reading • remembering what we have learned previously on the topic under study) • and what we physically do (e.g., taking notes, rereading to clear up confusion, making a chart, table, or story map to capture the most important information).”
Teachers who teach students learning strategies teach students how to learn and how to be successful in and out of the academic setting. • Learning strategies give students a way to think through and plan the solution to a problem. • Students who use learning strategies become more effective and independent learners.
Two Types of Learning Strategies • Cognitive • Learning how to read • Visualize • Estimate • Compute • Metacognitive • Self checking • Self questioning • Self monitoring
What Do Learning Strategies Look Like for Mathematics? Cognitive learning strategies range from the simple to the complex and may include • Adding by counting on from the first addend or the larger addend • Using mnemonics • Understanding that two times any number will be even or that five times any number will always end in a zero or a 5 • Using a finger strategy for multiplying numbers less than 10 by 9
How to Implement Learning Strategies in the Classroom Administrators should: • provide professional development about learning strategies and • monitor teachers to be sure that learning strategies are taught.
Teachers should: • have a range of strategies from which to choose; • practice new strategies until they are comfortable with them; • explain why learning strategies are important as they teach them, which motivates students; • match strategies with the material; • model a variety of strategies in each class―different students may be more successful with different strategies; • consistently encourage students to use learning strategies in learning situations; • monitor students’ use of learning strategies to ensure they are using them correctly; and • encourage generalization to other subject areas.
ADHD and Mathematics • Reading response
Classroom Accommodations • Eliminate distractions • Review medications and the effect on the student • Be straightforward • Allow for time-out if a student needs it • Review directions in advance • Give undivided attention to the student • Allow for signaled response • Focus on what is said, not how well it is said • Listen patiently • Allow more time • Review lighting and background for appropriateness • Eliminate background noises
Classroom Accommodations • Maximize availability of visual media and/or models • Clearly label items or equipment • Allow for direct manipulation of materials • Get feedback from student • Provide a reader when appropriate • Computer, circles, dictation when appropriate
References • The Access Center Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8 • Kroesbergen, E. H., & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2003). Mathematical interventions for children with special educational needs. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 97–114. • Maccini, P., & Gagnon, J. C. (2000). Best practices for teaching mathematics to secondary students with special needs. Focus on Exceptional Children, 32, 1–22. • Swanson, H. L. (2001). Searching for the best model for instructing students with learning disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 34, 1–15 • Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1993). Special education for the twenty-first century:Integrating learning strategies and thinking skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26,392–398.
For Next Week • Read: Steele, M. (2002). Strategies for helping students who have learning disabilities in mathematics. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 8, 140-143. • Project 4 due: Pre-CRA Assessment • Article related to culturally responsive teaching or secondary mathematics