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GPS Requirements for Tsunami Detection Y. Tony Song & Geoff Blewitt. Collaborators: Yoaz Bar-Sever, Richard Gross, Vindell Hsu, Kenneth Hudnut, Hans-Peter Plag , Mark Simons, and Frank Webb Jet Propulsion Laboratory NOAA (PTWC) USGS Caltech University of Nevada Reno. Tsunami Basics.
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Collaborators:Yoaz Bar-Sever, Richard Gross, Vindell Hsu, Kenneth Hudnut, Hans-Peter Plag ,Mark Simons, and Frank Webb
Jet Propulsion Laboratory NOAA (PTWC)
University of Nevada Reno
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Tsunamis occur after earthquakes
11 events in 4 years
Conclusion: Earthquake magnitude does not determine tsunami impact.
2004: tsunami death ~230,000
2006: tsunami death ~730
2007: tsunami death ~54
Panic evacuation killed ~100 in March 2005
Since 1982, tsunami warnings based on earthquake magnitude have produced false alarms 16 out of 16 in Pacific (U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO-06-519).
State of Hawaii’s estimation: an evacuation from a tsunami alarm would have cost the state $58.2 million in economic losses (Eddie Bernard, 1996).
Song et al., Horizontal impulses of faulting continental slopes dictate tsunami genesis, Ocean Modell., doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.10.007 (2008)
Seismic inversion Approach
Song et al., The 26 December 2004 tsunami source estimated from satellite radar altimetry and seismic waves, GRL, 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023683 (2005).
Blewitt, G., et al. Rapid determination of earthquake magnitude using GPS for tsunami warning systems. GRL, 33, L11309, doi:10.1029/2006GL026145, (2006).
Song, Y. T., Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, GRL, 34, doi:10.1029/2007GL03168 (2007).
Those earthquakes transfer oceanic energy
Knowing how tsunamis are generated by earthquakes is the key to successful prediction.
Lateral motions of continental slopes are the main source of tsunami energy
Calculating tsunami source energy from GPS displacements
Step 1: GPS displacements
Step 2: Seafloor displacement
Step 3: Tsunami energy
Step1: GPS Displacements
GPS-inverted Seafloor Displacements
Seafloor motionsderived from GPS data
3-D Ocean Model
Existing GDGPS (JPL/NASA)
Add into GDGPS