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BR _ main. Gorilla. Killer Whale. English Song – Ben. Warm-up Questions. Animal Ranking. BR_1_main. Gorilla. Introduction to Gorillas. Features of Gorillas. BR_3_main. English Song – Ben. Michael Jackson. Ben. Questions about the Song. BR_1_1.1. Introduction to Gorillas.

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br main
BR _ main

Gorilla

Killer Whale

English Song – Ben

Warm-up Questions

Animal Ranking

br 1 main

BR_1_main

Gorilla

Introduction to Gorillas

Features of Gorillas

br 3 main

BR_3_main

English Song – Ben

Michael Jackson

Ben

Questions about the Song

br 1 1 1
BR_1_1.1

Introduction to Gorillas

Listen to the following passage and fill in the gaps with the wordsyou hear.

It’s the largest of the great apes. The male is heavily built and may stand 1.7m (5.5 feet) in height, with an arm spread of 2.4m (7.8 feet). It has a large with a short , a prominent (突起的), thin, and small. The female is

head

____

____

mouth

neck

______

ears

lips

____

___

smaller than the male. This huge animal has formidable

(可怕的) canine (似犬的) , yet it feeds on fruit and vegetables and has no natural enemies.

teeth

_____

br 1 1 2
BR_1_1.2

Most of the day is spent on the ground; they usually walk on all four limps leaning on the knuckles (手指关节) of their , but occasionally upright. Gorillas live in

groups. The young gorillas very well, but old ones stay almost on the ground. At night, the gorilla family on the ground in nests made of branches and leaves. Gorillas are hard to keep in captivity, for they are likely to get human diseases, such as tuberculosis (结核病). Gorillas, generally, are a center of in most of the big cities.

hands

_____

family

climb

_____

_____

all the time

__________

sleeps

______

attraction

_________

br 1 2 1

BR_1_2.1

Features of Gorillas

Hair and Skin:

Gorillas are covered with brownish hair on most of their body (except their fingers, palms, armpits, and bottoms of their feet).

Head:

Gorillas have a very large head with a bulging forehead, and each has a unique nose print (like we have unique fingerprints).

br 1 2 2

BR_1_2.2

Senses:

Gorillas have senses very similar to ours, including hearing, sight (they seem to be slightly nearsighted and have color vision), smell, taste, and touch.

Habitat:

Gorillas are primarily terrestrial (陆栖的) (although they lived in trees back in their evolutionary past). Gorillas live in tropical rain forests (in the forest edges and clearings), wet lowland forests, swamps, and abandoned fields.

br 2 2

Killer Whale

BR_2_2

Listen to a passage and answer the questions.

1. How long and how heavy is a male killer whale?

The male averages 27 feet and 11 tons.

2. How fast dose a killer whale swim?

It swims with a speed of 30 mph.

3. How many members are there in a

family group of killer whale?

There are about 5 to 20 members in a family group of killer whale.

br 3 1 1

Michael Jackson

BR _3_1.1

Michael Jackson is more than just an extraordinarily popular singer and a wonderfully gifted dancer: he is a phenomenon that has forever left an imprint on the music industry.

br 3 1 2

BR _3_1.2

Chronology of Michael Jackson

—1958

Michael Jackson was born.

—1965

Michael joined his brothers in the Jackson Five.

—1972

Michael released his first solo album, Ben.

—1982

Michael’s landmark album Thriller was released.

br 3 1 3

BR _3_1.3

—1994

Michael married Lisa Marie Presley,daughter of rock innovator and cultural icon Elvis Presley.

—1996

Michael and Lisa Marie were divorced in an amicable manner.

—1996

Michael married Deborah Rowe, an assistant to his dermatologist (皮肤科医生).

br 3 1 4

BR _3_1.4

—1997

His first child, Prince Michael Jackson Jr., was born.

—1998

His daughter, Paris Michael Katherine, was born.

—1999

Michael and Deborah got divorced.

br 3 1 5

BR _3_1.5

—2000

“Billie Jean,” “Rock With You,” “I Want You Back” and “Beat It” were enlisted in Rolling Stone magazine’s list of the 100 greatest songs of all time.

—2002

Jackson lifted his newborn son, Prince Michael, over a hotel room terrace so fans could catch a glimpse — and was roundly criticized for endangering his child.

br 3 1 6

BR _3_1.6

—2003

Jackson was charged with seven counts of child sexual abuse and two counts of administering an intoxicating agent.

—2005

Jackson was acquitted on all counts in the Arvizo case in the the People v. Jackson trial in Santa Maria, California.

br 3 1 7

BR _3_1.7

Jackson made his first public appearance since the Arvizo trial to accept eight records from the Guinness World Records in London.

— 2006

—2008

Jackson issued Thriller 25, celebrating 25 years of the iconic album. The reissue reached number two in the U.S. Sony releases King of Pop, a fan-curated compilation.

br 3 1 8

— June 25, 2009:

Jackson died in Los Angeles at 50 after going into cardiac arrest.

BR _3_1.8

br 3 3

BR _3_3

Questions about the Song

  • What’s the relationship between Michael Jackson and Ben?

2. Does Ben have any intelligence?

slide19

BR_4

Warm-up Questions

  • Do you or your family or friends have a pet, such as a
  • dog, cat, or bird? If so, how does the pet communicate
  • with you or them? Does the pet understand you or them?

2. Do you think animals, especially very intelligent ones, have thoughts and feelings? Explain.

br 5 1

Animal Ranking

BR _5_1

Students are required to form groups to rank the following animalsaccording to their intelligence and explain the reasons behind the ranking. Examples, anecdotes, personal experiences, scientific findings, etc. may be cited.

br 5 2

BR _5_2

Pig

Dog

Dolphin

Elephant

Monkey

Rat

Parrot

Cat

Ant

Click the words in red!

gr main

GR _main

Part Division of the Text

Skimming and Scanning

Further Understanding

gr 3 main

GR _ 3_main

Further Understanding

For Parts 1 & 2 Multiple Choice

For Parts 3 & 4 True or False

gr 1 1

GR _ 1.1

Part Division of the Text

Parts

Para(s)

Main Ideas

Some animals demonstrate intelligence when dealing with captivity and human beings.

1

1~2

Some animals are intelligent enough to know how to bargain with people.

2

3~6

gr 1 2

GR _ 1.2

Parts

Para(s)

Main Ideas

Animals like whales can assess a situation and act accordingly.

3

7~10

Animals can sometimes be tricky.

4

11~12

Animal intelligence is meant to serve survival.

5

13

gr 2 1

Animals know how to negotiate with

people.

1) Expanded the money supply by breaking

________________________________

plastic chips in two;

_______

2) Found pieces of tin foil and tried to make

______________________________________

copies of metal chips.

_________________

______________________________________

___________________

Skimming and Scanning

GR_2.1

Fill in the blanks with the information about the animals mentioned in Text A and figure out the author’s purposes.

1. Colo:

Broke the key chain.

__________________

Author’s purpose:

2. Chantek:

gr 2 2

Allowed somebody to stand on his head to reach

up and release the baby.

__________________________________________

Animals can assess the situation and make

______________________

a right decision.

____________________________________

Animal intelligence can be seen in their

______________

attempts to deceive.

___________________________________

__________________

Author’s purpose:

Animals can even handle the money.

_______________________________

GR_ 2.2

3. Orky:

Author’s purpose:

4. Melati:

Hid an orange in her other hand.

____________________________

Hid an orange underneath his foot.

5. Towan:

______________________________

Author’s purpose:

gr 3 1 1

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.1

1. The author writes this article in order to _______.

A) find out how animals use their intelligence

B) find out if animals are as intelligent as human beings

C) find out if animals do what human beings tell them

to do

D) find out if animals can survive better if they are

intelligent

gr 3 1 1a

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.1A

1. The author writes this article in order to _______.

A

A) find out how animals use their intelligence

B) find out if animals are as intelligent as human beings

C) find out if animals do what human beings tell them

to do

D) find out if animals can survive better if they are

intelligent

gr 3 1 1b

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.1B

1. The author writes this article in order to _______.

B

A) find out how animals use their intelligence

B) find out if animals are as intelligent as human beings

C) find out if animals do what human beings tell them

to do

D) find out if animals can survive better if they are

intelligent

gr 3 1 1c

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.1C

1. The author writes this article in order to _______.

C

A) find out how animals use their intelligence

B) find out if animals are as intelligent as human beings

C) find out if animals do what human beings tell them

to do

D) find out if animals can survive better if they are

intelligent

gr 3 1 1d

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.1D

1. The author writes this article in order to _______.

D

A) find out how animals use their intelligence

B) find out if animals are as intelligent as human beings

C) find out if animals do what human beings tell them

to do

D) find out if animals can survive better if they are

intelligent

gr 3 1 2

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.2

2. One thing that is obvious to the author is that _______.

A) animals have their own thinking

B) animals do things scientists tell them to do

C) animals think for their own purpose if they can think

D) animals think when scientists want them to

gr 3 1 2a

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.2A

2. One thing that is obvious to the author is that _______.

A

A) animals have their own thinking

B) animals do things scientists tell them to do

C) animals think for their own purpose if they can think

D) animals think when scientists want them to

gr 3 1 2b

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.2B

2. One thing that is obvious to the author is that _______.

B

A) animals have their own thinking

B) animals do things scientists tell them to do

C) animals think for their own purpose if they can think

D) animals think when scientists want them to

gr 3 1 2c

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.2C

2. One thing that is obvious to the author is that _______.

C

A) animals have their own thinking

B) animals do things scientists tell them to do

C) animals think for their own purpose if they can think

D) animals think when scientists want them to

gr 3 1 2d

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.2D

2. One thing that is obvious to the author is that _______.

D

A) animals have their own thinking

B) animals do things scientists tell them to do

C) animals think for their own purpose if they can think

D) animals think when scientists want them to

gr 3 1 3

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.3

3. The author is convinced that when dealing with human

beings, animals are _________.

A) less intelligent than expected

B) more intelligent than expected

C) as stupid as expected

D) as intelligent as expected

gr 3 1 3a

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.3A

3. The author is convinced that when dealing with human

beings, animals are _________.

A

A) less intelligent than expected

B) more intelligent than expected

C) as stupid as expected

D) as intelligent as expected

gr 3 1 3b

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.3B

3. The author is convinced that when dealing with human

beings, animals are _________.

B

A) less intelligent than expected

B) more intelligent than expected

C) as stupid as expected

D) as intelligent as expected

gr 3 1 3c

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.3C

3. The author is convinced that when dealing with human

beings, animals are _________.

C

A) less intelligent than expected

B) more intelligent than expected

C) as stupid as expected

D) as intelligent as expected

gr 3 1 3d

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.3D

3. The author is convinced that when dealing with human

beings, animals are _________.

D

A) less intelligent than expected

B) more intelligent than expected

C) as stupid as expected

D) as intelligent as expected

gr 3 1 4

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.4

4. Colo’s example indicates that ________.

  • some animals know quite well how to deceive the
  • keepers

B) some animals know quite well how to help the keepers

C) some animals know quite well how to handle suspicious

objects

D) some animals know quite well how to negotiate with

the keepers

gr 3 1 4a

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.4A

4. Colo’s example indicates that ________.

A

  • some animals know quite well how to deceive the
  • keepers

B) some animals know quite well how to help the keepers

C) some animals know quite well how to handle suspicious

objects

D) some animals know quite well how to negotiate with

the keepers

gr 3 1 4b

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.4B

4. Colo’s example indicates that ________.

B

  • some animals know quite well how to deceive the
  • keepers

B) some animals know quite well how to help the keepers

C) some animals know quite well how to handle suspicious

objects

D) some animals know quite well how to negotiate with

the keepers

gr 3 1 4c

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.4C

4. Colo’s example indicates that ________.

C

  • some animals know quite well how to deceive the
  • keepers

B) some animals know quite well how to help the keepers

C) some animals know quite well how to handle suspicious

objects

D) some animals know quite well how to negotiate with

the keepers

gr 3 1 4d

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.4D

4. Colo’s example indicates that ________.

D

  • some animals know quite well how to deceive the
  • keepers

B) some animals know quite well how to help the keepers

C) some animals know quite well how to handle suspicious

objects

D) some animals know quite well how to negotiate with

the keepers

gr 3 1 5

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.5

5. Mile’s experiment to teach Chantek to share things

proves to be __________.

A) a great success

B) a blunder

C) a great failure

D) an unwanted thing

gr 3 1 5a

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.5A

5. Mile’s experiment to teach Chantek to share things

proves to be __________.

A

A) a great success

B) a blunder

C) a great failure

D) an unwanted thing

gr 3 1 5b

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.5B

5. Mile’s experiment to teach Chantek to share things

proves to be __________.

B

A) a great success

B) a blunder

C) a great failure

D) an unwanted thing

gr 3 1 5c

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.5C

5. Mile’s experiment to teach Chantek to share things

proves to be __________.

C

A) a great success

B) a blunder

C) a great failure

D) an unwanted thing

gr 3 1 5d

Multiple Choice

GR _ 3_1.5D

5. Mile’s experiment to teach Chantek to share things

proves to be __________.

D

A) a great success

B) a blunder

C) a great failure

D) an unwanted thing

gr 3 2 1

True or False

GR _ 3_2.1

1. Behaviorists say that animals cooperate with human

beings for their own benefit.

()

T

2. Laule believed that Orky, a killer whale, was the most intelligent animal she had ever seen.

()

F

Laule believed that Orky, a killer whale, was the

most intelligent animal she had ever worked with.

gr 3 2 2

GR _ 3_2.2

3. Some animals’ intelligence can be seen in their

attempts to deceive.

()

T

4. Orky allowed somebody to stand on his head to reach up and release the baby because he had been trained to do so.

()

F

Orky let somebody stand on his head to reach up

and release the baby, but he had not been trained

to do so.

gr 3 2 3

GR _ 3_2.3

5. Animals can learn from each other in playing some

tricks. Towan is a good example.

()

T

d r text 1

What Animals Really Think

D R _ Text 1

Eugene Linden

Over the years, I have written extensively about animal-intelligence experiments and the controversy that surrounds them. Do animals really have thoughts, what we call consciousness? Wondering whether there might be better ways to explore animal intelligence than experiments designed to teach human signs, I realized what now seems obvious: if animals can think, they will probably do their best thinking when it serves their own purposes, not when scientists ask them to.

d r text 2

D R _ Text 2

And so I started talking to vets, animal researchers, zoo keepers. Most do not study animal intelligence, but they encounter it, and the lack of it, every day. The stories they tell us reveal what I’m convinced is a new window on animal intelligence: the kind of mental feats animals perform when dealing with captivity and the dominant species on the planet — humans.

d r text 3

Let’s Make a Deal

Consider the time Charlene Jendry, a conservationist at the Columbus Zoo, learned that a female gorilla named Colo was handling a suspicious object. Arriving on the scene, Jendry offered Colo some peanuts, only to be met

D R _ Text 3

with a blank stare. Realizing they were negotiating, Jendry raised the stakes and offered a piece of pineapple. At this point, while maintaining eye contact, Colo opened her hand and revealed a key chain.

d r text 4 5 1

D R _ Text 4-5.1

Relieved it was not anything dangerous or valuable, Jendry gave Colo the pineapple. Careful bargainer that she was, Colo then broke the key chain and gave Jendry a link, perhaps figuring, Why give her the whole thing if I can get a bit of pineapple for each piece?

If an animal can show skill in trading one thing for another, why not in handling money? One orangutan named Chantek did just that in a sign-language study undertaken by anthropologist Lyn Miles at the University of Tennessee.

d r text 5 2

D R _ Text 5.2

Chantek figured out that if he did tasks like cleaning his room, he’d earn coins to spend on treats and rides in Miles’s car. But the orangutan’s understanding of money seemed toextendfar beyond simple dealings. Miles first used plastic chips as coins, but Chantek decided he could expand the money supply by breaking chips in two. When Miles switched to metal chips, Chantek found pieces of tin foil and tried to make copies.

d r text 6

Miles also tried to teach Chantek more virtuous habits such as saving and sharing. Indeed, when I caught up with the orangutan at Zoo Atlanta, where he now lives, I saw an example of sharing that anyone might envy. When Miles gave Chantek some grapes and asked him to share them,

D R _ Text 6

Chantek promptly ate all the fruit. Then, as if he’d just remembered he’d been asked to share, he handed Miles the stem.

d r text 7 8

D R _ Text 7-8

Tale of a Whale

Why would an animal want to cooperate with a human? Behaviorists would say that animals cooperate when they learn it is in their interest to do so. This is true, but I don’t think it goes far enough.

Gail Laule, a consultant on animal behavior, speaks of Orky, a killer whale, she knew. “Of all the animals I’ve worked with, he was the most intelligent,” she says. “He would assess a situation and then do something based on the judgments he made.”

d r text 9

D R _ Text 9

Like the time he helped save a family member. When Orky’s mate, Corky, gave birth, the baby did not thrive at first, and keepers took the little whale out of the tank by stretcher for emergency care. Things began to go wrong when they returned the baby whale to the tank. As the workers halted the stretcher a few meters above the water, the baby suddenly began throwing up through its mouth. The keepers feared it would choke, but they could not reach the baby to help it.

d r text 10

D R _ Text 10

Apparentlysizing upthe problem, Orky swam under the stretcher and allowed one of the men to stand on his head, something he’d never been trained to do. Then, using his tail to keep steady, Orky let the keeper reach up and release the 420-pound baby so that it could slide into the water within reach of help.

d r text 11

D R _ Text 11

Primate Shell Game

Sometimes evidence of intelligence can be seen in attempts to deceive. Zoo keeper Helen Shewman of Seattle’s Woodland Park Zoo recalls that one day she dropped an orange through a feeding hole for Melati, an orangutan. Instead of moving away to get it, Melati looked Shewman in the eye and held out her hand. Thinking the orange must have rolled off somewhere inaccessible, Shewman gave her another one. But when Melati moved off, Shewman noticed the original orange was hidden in her other hand.

d r text 12

D R _ Text 12

Towan, the colony’s dominant male, watched this whole trick, and the next day he, too, looked Shewman in the eye and pretended that he had not yet received an orange. “Are you sure you don’t have one?” Shewman asked. He continued to hold her gaze steadily and held

out his hand. Giving in, she gave him another one, then saw that he had been hiding his orange underneath his foot.

d r text 13

D R _ Text 13

What is intelligence anyway? If life is about survival of a species — and intelligence is meant to serve that survival — then we can’t compare with pea-brained sea turtles, which were here long before us and survived the disaster that wiped out the dinosaurs. Still, it is comforting to realize that other species besides our own can stand back and assess the world around them,

even if their horizons are more limited than ours.

d r text 2 s1 1

D R _ Text 2_S1.1

the kind of mental feats animals perform when dealing with captivity and the dominant species on the planet — humans.

1. What do you learn from this sentence?

Animals have the abilities to deal with human beings’ captivity though human beings are more intelligent than them.

d r text 2 s1 2

D R _ Text 2_S1.2

2. Paraphrase the sentence.

Animal show great intelligence when they deal with human beings’ captivity even though human beings control and dominate this planet.

3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

即动物在对付樊笼生活和地球上的主宰物种——人类——时所表现的高超的思维技能。

d r text 3 s

Arriving on the scene, Jendry offered Colo some peanuts, only to be met with a blank stare.

D R _ Text 3_S

How to understand “only to”?

It is often used to indicate that sb. does sth. with a disappointing or surprising result. Infinitive “to” functions as a result adverbial.

More examples:

He hurried to the railway station, only to find that the train had left.

He had once tried inviting her out, only to meet with a rather cool response.

d r text 4 5 1 s

D R _ Text 4-5.1_S

Colo then broke the key chain and gave Jendry a link, perhaps figuring, Why give her the whole thing if I can get a bit of pineapple for each piece?

1. What conclusion can you draw about Colo?

Colo is a good bargainer, and this case shows that animals may really have intelligence.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

科洛然后把钥匙链拉断,给了延德里一段,或许是在算计,要是每一小段都能换片菠萝,我干嘛要全都给她?

d r text 7 8 s

D R _ Text 7-8_S

This is true, but I don’t think it goes far enough.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

What behaviorists say is right, but I don’t think their explanation helps very much.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

这没有错,但我觉得这一解释尚不充分。

d r text 11 s

D R _ Text 11_S

Instead of moving away to get it, Melati looked Shewman in the eye and held out her hand.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

梅拉蒂没有移动身体去接,而是眼睛直视休曼,伸出手来。

d r text 13 s1 1

D R _ Text 13_S1.1

If life is about survival of a species — and intelligence is meant to serve that survival — then we can’t compare with pea-brained sea turtles, which were here long before us and survived the disaster that wiped out the dinosaurs.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

If the purpose of life is to survive and intelligence is for survival, then our intelligence can’t be compared with that of the pea-brained sea turtles. They were on this earth long before we human beings and they even survived the disaster that destroyed the dinosaurs.

d r text 13 s1 2

D R _ Text 13_S1.2

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

如果生命关乎物种的生存——而智能是为了生存服务——那么我们根本无法与大脑只有豌豆大小的海龟相提并论。海龟早在人类出现之前很久便已存在,并经历了使恐龙灭绝的重大灾难而生存下来。

d r text 13 s2

D R _ Text 13_S2

… even if their horizons are more limited than ours.

  • What can you infer from the sentence?

Animals’ horizons are more limited and can’t be compared with human beings’.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

…即便它们的视野比我们还狭小。

d r text 5 2 s

D R _ Text 5.2_S

But the orangutan’s understanding of money seemed to extend far beyond simple dealings.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

What the orangutan understands is more than just simple dealings.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

但这头猩猩对钱币的理解似乎远远超出了简单的交易。

d r text 10 s

D R _ Text 10_S

Apparently sizing up the problem, Orky swam under the stretcher and allowed one of the men to stand on his head, something he’d never been trained to do.

1. What does the sentence imply?

Orky is a whale who can assess a situation and then do something based on the judgments he made.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

奥基显然看出了问题,它游到担架下,让其中一人站在它头上。这种事从来没有训练它做过。

d r word intelligence

D R _ word _ intelligence

intelligence:n.

1) ability to learn and understand

The children were given an intelligence test.

2) news, information, esp. with reference to important

events

他最终搞到了敌人计划的秘密情报。

He managed to get the secret intelligence of the enemy’ s plans.

d r word controversy

controversy:n.

a lot of discussion and argument about sth., often involving strong feelings of anger or disapproval (followed by over /about)

D R _ word _ controversy

This is a question that has given rise to much controversy.

他的书的出版引起了激烈的争议。

There is a bitter / heated controversy over the publishing of his books.

Collocation:

beyond / without controversy

无可争议, 无疑,不消说

d r word explore1

explore:vt.

D R _ word _ explore1

1) examine thoroughly; learn about

工程师们已经对在这条河上建桥的可能性做了仔细探察。

The engineers have already explored the possibility of building a bridge over the river.

The repairman explored my car and said he would fix it tomorrow.

d r word explore 2

D R _ word _explore 2

2) travel over (a region, area, etc.) for the purpose of

discovery

不论大人还是孩子都认为探索太空一定非常刺激。

Both adults and children think that it must be extremely exciting to explore space.

The man will explore the Sahara Desert on foot.

d r word encounter

encounter:vt.

1) meet esp. unexpectedly

D R _ word _ encounter

他在街上偶然遇见一位老友。

He encountered an old friend on the street.

2) come up against

The more dangers we encounter, the harder we should push forward.

d r word convince

convince:vt.

make (sb.) feel certain; cause (sb.) to realize

D R _ word _ convince

我深信他的诚实。

I’m convinced of his honesty.

We finally convinced the police of our innocence.

Pattern:

be convinced of 确信,承认

be convinced that 确信,承认

convince sb. of sth. 使某人相信某事

d r word dominant

D R _ word _ dominant

dominant:adj.

ruling; stronger, more powerful, or more noticeable than other people or things

查理·卓别林是美国电影工业上极有影响力的人物。

Charlie Chaplin was a dominant figure in the American film industry.

He is a dominant person in the company.

d r word make a deal

D R _ word _ make a deal

make a deal:

reach an agreement or arrangement, esp. in business or politics

I’ll make a deal with you — you wash the car and I’ll let you use it tonight.

这家汽车公司已经和一家日本公司达成协议,由日方提供发动机来交换刹车。

The automobile company has made a deal with a Japanese firm, which will supply engines in exchange for brakes.

d r word negotiate

D R _ word _ negotiate

negotiate:vi.

discuss in order to come to an agreement

The labor decided to negotiate with the employers about their wage claims.

政府拒绝和恐怖分子谈判。

The government refused to negotiate with terrorists.

Pattern:

negotiate for sth.

negotiate to do sth.

negotiate with sb.

d r word maintain 1

D R _ word _ maintain1

maintain:vt.

1) keep up; retain; continue

他的健康正在好转中。

The improvement in his health is being maintained.

2) support

He has worked hard to maintain his family.

d r word maintain 2

CF:

maintain, support, uphold & back

D R _ word _ maintain2

这四个词都有“支持,支撑”的含义。

maintain指“使保持某种情况或状态而不受损害”,“使保持完整所给予的力量”。例如:

support 系常用词, 指“支撑”,“给某人或物以积极援助或支持”。例如:

The government maintains the law.

政府支持这项法律。

We should support each other.

我们应该相互支持。

d r word maintain 3

D R _ word _ maintain3

CF:

maintain, support, uphold & back

uphold指“对某人、某种活动、信仰等给予支持、道义上的支援或精神上的鼓舞”。例如:

back 指“支持(论点、行动、企业等)”。例如:

His words upheld me greatly.

他的话在精神上给了我很大的支持。

I’ll back you up in your demands.

我支持你的请求。

d r word maintain 4

CF:

maintain, support, uphold & back

D R _ word _ maintain4

Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary.

1.

2.

3.

4.

He was in the argument about insurance policy.

Microsoft intends to its position as market leader.

The Supreme Court is expected to the death sentence.

There was too little food to life.

backed

______

maintain

________

uphold

______

support

_______

d r word reveal

D R _ word _ reveal

reveal:vt.

1) bring to view; show

His worn jacket revealed his elbows.

2) make known (sth. concealed or secret)

这些事件总有一天会真相大白的。

One day the truth about these events will be revealed.

d r word relieve

D R _ word _ relieve

relieve:vt.

free (sb.) from pain, anxiety, etc.

Taking a part-time job would relieve you of the financial burden.

听说你已安全到达,我们就放心了。

We are relieved to hear that you have arrived safely.

Pattern:

relieve sb. of sth.

d r word undertake

undertake:vt.

carry out; take upon oneself (a task, etc.)

D R _ word _ undertake

如果我们要承担更多的工作的话,我们就得再多招些人。

We’ll have to employ more staff if we’re to undertake more work.

The United Nations is supposed to undertake the role of global peace-keeper.

d r word figure out

D R _ word _ figure out

figure out:

understand; reason out

我想不出那位戴墨镜的女士是谁。

I couldn’t figure out who the lady with the sunglasses was.

I can’t figure her out, one minute happy, the next sad.

d r word extend1

D R _ word _ extend1

extend:v.

1) (cause to ) stretch or reach

Rain is expected to extend to all parts of the country by this evening.

2) make larger or longer

我们把厨房扩大出一块吃饭的区域。

We’ve extended the kitchen to give us room for a dining area.

d r word extend2

D R _ word _ extend2

Collocation:

延续…(距离)

extend for

从…伸出来

extend from

伸出

extend out

延续…(时间),遍布

extend over

贯穿…,达到整个…的长度

extend through...

d r word extend3

CF:

extend & prolong

D R _ word _ extend3

这两个词都有“延长,伸长”的意思。

extend 可以用于比喻意义上的“延长”,或范围的“扩展”。例如:

the extended meaning of a word

词汇的引申意义

to extend (or lengthen) a road

延长道路

to extend (or lengthen) one’s stay

延长某人的逗留时间

明年将会延长这条铁路。

The railway will be extended next year.

d r word extend4

D R _ word _ extend4

CF:

prolong 通常表示时间的“延长”。 例如:

Alfred had deduced that the Danes were no longer fit for prolonged battle.

艾尔弗雷德已经推测出了丹麦人不适应持久的战争。

d r word expand1

expand:v.

1) (cause to) grow larger (in size, number or amount)

D R _ word _ expand1

The small pocket dictionary was expanded into a larger volume.

这个公司已从一个小公司发展到拥有12个分公司了。

The business has expanded from having one office to having twelve.

2) speak or write at length or in detail

The professor will expand on a hot topic in his lecture.

d r word expand2

CF:

expand & swell

D R _ word _ expand2

这两个词都有“扩展,延伸”的意思。

expand 侧重指“上下、左右、前后的面或体的伸展”。

例如:

swell 强调“由于内在的压力或外加某物而使增高或加大至超过正常情况”。例如:

Iron expands when it is heated.

铁遇热则膨胀。

His injured wrist began to swell.

他受伤的手腕开始肿起来。

d r word expand3

D R _ word _ expand3

CF:

expand & swell

Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary.

1. The enrolment of our university to 4,000

this year.

2. We have into the automobile service

market.

swelled

_______

expanded

________

d r word envy1

envy:

1. vt. wish that you had a quality or possession that

another person has

D R _ word _ envy1

I don’t envy you for your journey in this bad weather.

他突然成了百万富翁,许多人都羡慕他的好运。

He became a millionaire overnight. Many people envied him for his good luck.

Pattern:

envy sb. / sth.

envy sb. sth.

envy sb. for sth.

d r word envy 2

D R _ word _ envy 2

  • 2. n.
  • feeling of disappointment and resentment (at another’s
  • better fortune)
  • 2) object of such feeling

She was filled with envy at her sister’s success.

他那部豪华的新车是他所有的朋友羡慕的东西。

His splendid new car was the envy of all his friends.

Collocation:

非常嫉妒

lost in envy

d r word in one s interest

in one’s interest (s):

for or to one’s advantage

D R _ word _ in one’s interest

The local government has to abandon the plan for a new chemical plant because it is not in the public interest.

尽管这项工作很难,但你承担下来对你是会有利的。

It would be in your interests to undertake this task although it’s very difficult.

Collocation:

失去兴趣

lose interest

对…产生兴趣

take interest in

有兴趣地

with interest

d r word judgment 1

judgment:n.

D R _ word _ judgment 1

1) opinion about sth.

在你看来是什么导致学生们考试不及格?

In your judgment, what has caused the students’ failure in the examination?

The manager made an unfair judgment of his new secretary’s work.

d r word judgment 2

D R _ word _ judgment 2

2) ability to form valuable opinions and make good decisions

He showed excellent judgment in choosing the wine.

我很钦佩爸爸的判断力,每件事都听他的建议。

I respect my father’s judgment and always follow any advice he gives me.

d r word at first1

at first:

at the beginning

D R _ word _ at first1

一开始天挺热,但后来变凉了。

At first it was very hot, but then it got cooler.

Jenny felt tired at first, but soon got used to the hard training.

CF:

at first, first & firstly

这三个词(组)都表示“起先,开始”的意思。

at first用于提及有先后顺序的事物,或事件中的前者。例如:

I rejected his invitation at first, but I changed my mind two days later.

起初,我拒绝了他的邀请;但是,两天后,我改变了主意。

d r word at first2

CF:

first 和firstly 用于陈述一系列的原因、观点等,或指在另一特指的时间以前。常与second,secondly,third,thirdly 等连用。例如:

D R _ word _ at first2

I must finish my homework first.

我必须首先完成作业。

CF:

at first, first & firstly

Fill in the blanks with the words or phrase above. Change the form where necessary.

First / Firstly

1.

____________

I’d like to tell you some background

information, then I’ll explain some difficult sentences in the text.

d r word at first3

CF:

at first, first & firstly

D R _ word _at first3

2.

3.

4.

When people get their newspaper, which page do

they read ?

You’ll find it difficult , but later it’ll get easier.

There are two reasons. , there is no

evidence that the original documents have been

destroyed. Second, Jack saw them the day before

yesterday.

first

____

at first

______

First

____

d r word go wrong

D R _ word _go wrong

go wrong:

stop working properly; experience trouble

I didn’t watch the live opening ceremony of the World Cup yesterday because my television went wrong again.

All their plans went wrong.

d r word size up

D R _ word _size up

size up:

carefully examine (a situation or person ) in order to make a judgment

父亲审查我男朋友的方式让我感到难堪。

I felt embarrassed by the way my father sized up my boyfriend.

I don’t like the way the sales assistants in that shop size you up as you walk through the door.

d r word release1

D R _ word _ release1

  • release:vt.
  • free from sth. that binds, fastens, or holds back; let go

动物园的一些动物被从笼里放了出来。

Some animals in the zoo had been released from their cages.

Death finally released him from the cancer torture.

d r word release2

D R _ word _ release2

2) allow (news) to be known or published; allow (a film) to be exhibited or (goods) to be placed on sale

昨天我买了一些迈克尔·杰克逊最新出的唱片。

I bought some recently released discs of Michael Jackson yesterday.

His new novel about September 11 terrorist attack was released last week.

d r word deceive

deceive:vt.

try to make (sb.) believe sth. that is false

D R _ word _deceive

You deceived me, and I can’t forgive you.

他们欺骗老人,让他在文件上签字。

They deceived the old man into signing the papers.

He that once deceives is ever suspected.

[谚]骗人一次,受疑一世。

Pattern:

deceive sb.

deceive sb. into (doing) sth.

d r word look sb in the eye1

D R _ word _ look sb. in the eye1

look sb. in the eye:

look directly and steadily at sb. because you are not

embarrassed or ashamed

I couldn’t look him in the eye afterwards, knowing that I had lost all that money.

你能看着我说不是你打破玻璃吗?

Can you look me in the eye and say you didn’t break the window?

d r word look sb in the eye2

D R _ word _ look sb. in the eye2

Collocation:

look about

环视

look after

照料,照顾,照管

look down on

看不起,轻视

look forward to

盼望,期待

look into

朝…里面看;调查,观察

look up to

尊敬,钦佩

d r word original1

D R _ word _ original1

original:adj.

1) first or earliest

原先的计划优于我们所执行的计划。

The original plan was better than the plan we followed.

The land was returned to the original owner.

Later models of the car retained many of the original features.

d r word original2

D R _ word _ original2

2) newly formed or created; not copied or imitated

他新买的衬衫是范思哲的原创。

His newly bought shirt is an original design of Versace.

d r word survive1

survive: v.

1) remain alive

D R _ word _ survive1

A few were killed but most survived in the earthquake.

2) continue to live or exist after

她在车祸中幸存下来。

She survived the accident.

CF:

survive, outlive & outlast

都含有“比别的人或别的物存在的时间长”的意思。

survive指“幸存”,也可以用于指比另一物活得更久。例如:

Ten of them survived the shipwreck.

他们中有10人在海难中幸存下来。

d r word survive2

D R _ word _ survive2

CF:

outlive 指“活得比…长久”,“比(某物)经久”。例如:

outlast 指“比…耐久”,“比…活得更久”。 outlast经常可与 outlive互换使用,强调更长时间的延续。例如:

The ship outlived the storm.

小船熬过了暴风雨。

He will outlast me.

他会比我长寿。

d r word wipe out

wipe out:

get rid of or destroy

D R _ word _wipe out

银行同意将他们的债务一笔勾销。

The bank agreed to wipe out their debts.

The population of the island was almost wiped out by the disease.

a r main1

Useful Expressions

A R _ main1

Sentence Translation

Summary Writing

Spot Dictation

Text Analysis – Transition

Writing Practice

Interview

Talk about the Pictures

Proverbs and Quotations

b r wp main
B R _ WP_ main

Writing Practice

A Brief Introduction

A Sample

Homework

a r ta t 1

A R _ TA-T1

Text Analysis — Transition

1. Headings and subheadings

For example, in this text we have three subheadings for

three parts of the main body of the passage. They are:

“Let’s Make a Deal”, “Tale of a Whale”, “Primate Shell

Game”. The subheading directs readers’ attention to

another demonstration of animal intelligence.

2. Anaphora (前指)

Anaphora is seen in the use of words to refer to

something, somebody or some event previously

mentioned.

a r ta t 2

Answer the following questions:

A R _ TA-T2

1) What does “it” in the first line of Para. 4 refer to?

The key chain held by Colo.

2) What does “the problem” in the first line of Para. 10 refer to?

The keepers couldn’t reach the baby whale to help it.

3) What does “this whole trick” in the first line of Para. 12 refer to?

Melati deceived her keeper into giving her two oranges instead of one.

a r ta t 3

A R _ TA-T3

3. Conjunctions

Conjunctions also pave the way for a smooth transition

of ideas. Take the first sentence of Para. 6 for example:

“Miles also tried to teach Chantek more virtuous habits

such as saving and sharing.” The conjunction “also”

connects this paragraph with the previous one. “Such

as” introduces a new example to be mentioned in the

sentences to follow.

a r interview 1

Interview

A R _ Interview1

Divide the class into pairs. Each pair shall conduct an

interview based on the information in the text. One acts as a reporter, the other as the interviewee.

Situation 1

Suppose you are a reporter from the program “Animal World”, you are interviewing the author of the article on animal intelligence with the information in part 1 and 2 as a clue.

a r interview 2

A R _ Interview2

Situation 2

Suppose you are a reporter from the program “Discovery”, you are interviewing Gail Laule, the consultant on animal behavior about animal intelligence. Use the information in part 3 as a clue.

Situation 3

Suppose you are a reporter from the program “Animal Planet”, you are interviewing Helen Shewman, the zoo keeper of Seattle’s Woodland Park Zoo about animal intelligence. Use the information in part 4 as a clue.

a r sw1

they will probably do

their best thinking when it serves their own purposes,

not when scientists ask them to

__________________

________________________________________________

____________________________

animal have the skills in trading one thing for

another

_______________________________________

_______

Summary Writing

A R _ SW1

The author of this article has been working for many years on the (动物智能) . She realized that if animals can think,

(它们会在能为自己所用的时候,而不是科学家让它们思维的时候进行最佳思维). In the example of “Let’s Make a Deal”, Jendry’s and Miles’s experiments with Colo and Chantek revealed the evidence that

(动物有以物换物的技能). In another story of

animal intelligence

_________________

a r sw2

it is in their

interest to cooperate

__________

and then do something based on

___________________

the judgments they made

____________________________

Sometimes evidence of intelligence can be seen in attempts

______________________

to deceive

____________________________________________________

_________

animals can stand back and

________________________

assess the world around them

__________________________

“Tale of a Whale”, Laule found that animals want to cooperate with human beings when they learn

(合作于己有利时). Moreover, they can assess a situation,

(然后根据自己的判断采取行动).

(有时动物的智能可以从其欺骗的企图中得以证明). A case in point is Melati and Towan. Animal’s horizons are more limited than ours, but it is still

comforting to realize that

(动物却也能退后一步清醒地审视周围的世界).

A R _ SW2

a r sw11

Spot Dictation

A R _ SW1

Listen to the following passage and fill in the blanks with the words you hear.

When you think about dolphins, you might picture them swimming playfully near boats or doing at a water park. Dolphins spend their whole lives in the water. These animals look like big fish, so it may surprise you to learn that they are mammals (哺乳动物). As all mammals do, dolphins air. Dolphins must come to the water’s to breathe. A dolphin breathes through an , called a blowhole, on the top of its head.

tricks

_____

_______

playful

breathe

_______

surface

______

opening

_______

a r sw12

A R _ SW1

Dolphins are considered animals. In captivity, dolphins have shown that they can learn tricks and

. Scientists also discovered that dolphins have good skills.

smart

_____

behaviors

________

problem-solving

______________

a r ue1

A R _ UE1

Useful Expressions

1. 为了自己的利益

serve one’s own purpose

2. 动物智慧

animal intelligence

3. 达成交易

make a deal

4. 白眼

a blank stare

5. 精明的还价者

a careful bargainer

6. 理解,悟出

figure out

a r ue2

A R _ UE2

7. 道德习惯

virtuous habits

8. 为了某人的利益

in one’s interest

9. 作出判断

make judgments

10. 起先

at first

11. 紧急救护

emergency care

12. 出故障,有毛病

go wrong

13. 呕吐

throw up

a r ue3

A R _ UE3

14. 估量,判断

size up

15. 保持平衡

keep steady

16. 滑入

slide into

17. 离开

move off

18. 凝视

hold one’s gaze steadily

19. 让步,屈服

give in

20. 消灭,消除

wipe out

a r wp1

A R _ WP1

A Brief Introduction

Examples are a very effective means to clarify a thought, to support statements or to help persuade. Besides, examples add interest and vividness to an essay. Nevertheless, not all examples can serve your purpose equally well. You have to select them carefully. The following transitional words are usually used in examples: for example, for instance, as an example, an example of, namely, in particular, such as, to illustrate, a case in point, etc.

a r wp2

A Sample

A R _ WP2

It is very difficult to evaluate another person’s performance objectively. For example, Senta recently wrote irresponsible remarks about her instructor because she failed the course. Her friend Sam wrote a marvelous description of the same instructor because he received an A in the course. Both Senta and Sam were not fairly evaluating the instructor. They were influenced by the grades they earned and were biased in their judgment.

a r wp3

Homework

A R _ WP3

For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic “My View on Opportunity”. You must base your composition on the following instructions (given in Chinese). Your composition should be no less than 120 words. Remember to write it clearly.

1.

2.

有人认为机会少,只有幸运的人才能抓住它;也有人认

为机会时刻都存在。

你的观点是什么,请举例说明。

a r wp3 pop1

A R _ WP3_pop1

Some people say that opportunities are rare, and only the luckiest people can obtain them, while some other people argue that in a sense everyone has opportunities from time to time.

As far as I am concerned, I agree with the latter opinion to some extent. I think that various kinds of opportunities are around us all the time. However, the opportunity will not run into you voluntarily. You must try your best to find them and make full use of them.

a r wp3 pop2

A R _ WP3_pop2

For example, when I was studying in high school, there was a national chemistry competition. Most of my classmates thought that we had virtually no chance of winning the competition since we were studying in a rural high school. But I felt that it was a good chance and I must grasp it. So I prepared for it thoroughly and finally I won the first prize. In conclusion, I believe that the opportunities are abundant in our society and everyone is equal for them. We can acquire them only if we are prepared and qualified, just as a proverb says “Opportunities are only for those who prepared.”

a r st1

Sentence Translation

A R _ST1

1. Chantek figured out that if he did tasks like cleaning his room, he’d earn coins to spend on treats and rides in Miles’s car.

夏特克悟出,如果它干些诸如清理房间的事,它就能挣些硬币,好用来买好吃的,还可以坐迈尔斯的车外出兜风。

a r st2

A R _ST2

2. When I caught up with the orangutan at Zoo Atlanta, where he now lives, I saw an example of sharing that anyone might envy.

当我在它目前生活的亚特兰大动物园见到这头猩猩时,我果然见到它与人分享的一例,足以令任何人羡慕。

3. 动物为什么会愿意与人合作?行为主义者会说,动物认识到合作于己有利时就会这么做。

Why would an animal want to cooperate with a human? Behaviorists would say that animals cooperate when they learn it is in their interest to do so.

a r st3

A R _ST3

4.梅拉蒂没有移动身体去接,而是眼睛直视休曼,伸出手来。

Instead of moving away to get it, Melati looked Shewman in the eye and held out her hand.

5. 她让步了,又给了它一个,随后却看见它把橘子藏在脚下。

Giving in, she gave him another one, then saw that he had been hiding his orange underneath his foot.

a r st4

A R _ST4

6.想到除了我们人类,尚有其他物种,即便它们的视野比我们

还狭小,却也能退后一步,清醒地审视周围的世界,不由人

深感宽慰。

It is comforting to realize that other species besides our own can stand back and assess the world around them, even if their horizons are more limited than ours.

a r proverbs and quotations 1

A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 1

Proverbs and Quotations

1. A cat may look at a king.

猫也有权晋见国王。

2. A dog will not howl if you beat him with a bone.

骨头打狗狗不叫。

3. A good horse often needs a good spur.

好马常要好靴刺。

a r proverbs and quotations 2

A R _ Proverbs and Quotations 2

4. A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy.

懒羊嫌毛重。

5. Crows are never the whiter for washing themselves.

江山易改,本性难移。

6. A wise fox will never rob his neighbour’s hen roost.

兔子不吃窝边草。

a r talk about the pictures

A R _Talk about the Pictures

Talk about the Pictures

a r talk about the pictures1

A R _Talk about the Pictures

Talk about the Pictures

a r talk about the pictures2

A R _Talk about the Pictures

Talk about the Pictures

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A R _Talk about the Pictures

Talk about the Pictures

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A R _Talk about the Pictures

Talk about the Pictures

s r main

S R _ main

Culture Notes

Reading

Comprehension Task

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Culture Notes

S R _ Culture Notes 1.1

Evolutionary biology

1. Definition

Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, and descent of species, as well as their changes, multiplication, and diversity over time. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist.

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2. History

S R _ Culture Notes 2.1

Evolutionary biology as an academic discipline in its own right emerged as a result of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s. It was not until the 1970s and 1980s, however, that a significant number of universities had departments that specifically included the term evolutionary biology in their titles. In the United States, as a result of the rapid growth of molecular and cell biology, many universities have split their biology departments into molecular and cell biology-style departments and ecology and evolutionarybiology-style departments.

s r reading text 1

S R _ Reading _ text 1

Do Animals Fall in Love?

Jeffery Moussaieff Masson and Susan McCarthy

Humans believe they know what love is, and value it highly. Yet many who study animal behavior are cautious about saying animals experience love, preferring to say they are not displaying “true love”, but simply following the dictates of their genes.

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S R _ Reading _ text 2

Is it really as simple as all that? What about the animals who stay together until one dies? Evolutionary biologists often say that pairing is a way to ensure adequate parental care, but it’s not always clear this is the case. Some animals continue to accompany each other when not raising young. And they appear to exhibit sorrow or show a sense of loss when one of the pair dies.

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S R _ Reading _ text 3

Konrad Lorenz, studying the behavior of geese, describes a typical example. Ado’s mate, Susanne-Elisabeth, was killed by a fox. He stood silently by her partly eaten body, which lay across their nest. In the following days, he hung his head and his eyes became vacant. Because he did not have the heart to defend himself from the attacks of the other geese, his status in the flock fell sharply. A year went by. Finally Ado pulled himself together and found another mate.

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S R _ Reading _ text 4

Animals may fall in love dramatically. According to Lorenz two geese are most likely to “fall in love” when they have known each other as youngsters, been separated and then meet again. He compared this to a man who meets a woman and — astonished that she is the same girl he used to see running around in a school uniform — falls in love and marries her. According to parrot specialist Sue Athan, it is common for some parrots to fall in love at first sight.

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Instinct may urge animals to love, but it does not say whom they will love. Seeking a mate for a male parrot, Athan purchased a fine-feathered young female and introduced the two birds. To Athan’s disappointment, “the male nevertheless acted like the female wasn’t even in the room.”

A few months later Athan was given an older female in extremely poor condition. “She didn’t have a feather from the neck down,” she says. “Her feet were all twisted. She had lines around her eyes. And yet the male thought she was the love of his life.” The two birds immediately paired off and eventually produced young.

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Zookeepers know, to their despair, that many species of animals will not breed with just any other animal of their species. Timmy, a gorilla in the

Cleveland Zoo, declined to mate with two female gorillas introduced to him. But when he met a gorilla named Kate, they took to each other at once. When it was thought that Kate was unable to reproduce, because of her advanced age, zookeepers decided to send Timmy to another zoo, where he might have a chance to breed successfully.

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Defending the zoo’s decision to separate the animals, the zoo director said, “It sickens me when people start to put human emotions in animals. We can’t think of them as some kind of magnificent human being: they are animals. When people start saying animals have emotions, they cross the bridge of reality.” Jane Goodall, whose work has shed light on the emotional life of chimpanzees, also writes, “I cannot think of chimpanzees developing emotions, one for the other, comparable in any way to the tenderness, protectiveness, tolerance and spiritual joy that are the mark of human love in its truest and deepest sense.”

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Yet there is evidence of love in the devotion that members of pairs heap on each other. Geese, swans and mandarin ducks are all symbols of marital faithfulness; field biologists tell us this is true to life. Coyotes, often thought of as representing trickery, would make equally good symbols of devotion, since they also form lasting pairs. Observations indicate that they begin to form pair attachments before they are sexually active.

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In his study of coyotes, Hope Ryden tells how pairs can be observed curling up together, hunting mice together, and greeting each other with elaborate displays. Ryden describes two coyotes mating. Afterward, the female tapped the male with her paw and licked his face. Then they curled up to sleep. This looks a lot like romantic love. Whatever distinctions may be made between the love of two people and the love of two animals, the essence frequently seems the same.

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An animal raised by another species will often show affection for a member of that species when it grows up. Gavin Maxwell tells of an otter called Tibby, who was raised by a man who lived on an island off the coast of Scotland and who got around with the help of a walking stick. When he became seriously ill, he took Tibby to Maxwell and asked him to look after the otter. The man died not long after.

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S R _ Reading _ text 12-13

Tibby made a habit of escaping and visiting the nearest village. There she found a man who used a walking stick. She tried to build a nest under his house, but he chased her away.

A short time later Tibby disappeared again. One day Maxwell received a call from a person who had been alarmed by an otter that had acted strangely, even trying to follow him indoors. “You don’t by any chance use a walking stick, do you?” asked Maxwell.

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S R _ Reading _ text 14-15

“Yes,” he replied with astonishment in his voice, “but how in the world could you know that?”

While the idea of love among animals has been generally rejected by science, doubts remain. For stories such as these suggest that some animals may experience joy, love and heartbreak remarkably like our own.

s r reading cautious

S R _ Reading _cautious

cautious: adj.

taking great care to avoid danger (followed by about)

My mother is a cautious motorist; she never does any dangerous driving.

会议上的那些人在表达自己观点时非常谨慎。

Those at the meeting are cautious about expressing their opinions.

s r reading display

S R _ Reading _ display

display: vt.

show (esp. a feeling or quality)

He displayed no emotion when he failed his exam.

电脑屏幕上显示着去年的统计数字。

The computer screen was displaying the figures for last year.

s r reading adequate

S R _ Reading _adequate

adequate: adj.

enough

Make sure that the lighting is adequate so that your guests can see what they are eating.

The lunchtime menu is more than adequate to satisfy the biggest appetite.

停车设施能容纳50辆车吗?

Are the parking facilities adequate for 50 cars?

s r reading accompany

S R _ Reading _accompany

accompany: vt.

go with

Children under 14 must be accompanied by an adult.

她无论去哪里都有保镖陪同。

A bodyguard accompanies her wherever she goes.

s r reading exhibit

S R _ Reading_ exhibit

exhibit: vt.

display

The economy began to exhibit signs of decline about a month ago.

当地人表现出对游客的极度不信任。

The native people exhibited a deep mistrust of all visitors.

s r reading have the heart

S R _ Reading _ have the heart

have the heart (to do sth.):

be determined / able to do sth. (usu. in negative sentences or questions)

I didn’t have the heart to tell him that his dad had died in the tsunami (海啸).

多次失败以后,他没有勇气再度尝试。

After so many failures he didn’t have the heart to try again.

s r reading pull oneself together

S R _ Reading _pull oneself together

pull oneself together:

force oneself to stop behaving in a nervous, frightened, or disorganized way

You must try to pull yourself together — your family depends on you.

振作起来,哭是没有用的。

Just pull yourself together. There is no point crying about it.

s r reading at first sight

S R _ Reading _ at first sight

at first sight:

when seen or considered for the first time

The question seemed easy at first sight, but when the students tried to answer it, they discovered how difficult it was.

The project promised to be a more difficult undertaking than might appear at first sight.

第一眼看这对双胞胎简直一模一样。

At first sight, the twins look identical.

s r reading purchase

S R _ Reading _purchase

purchase: vt.

(fml) buy

I purchased the car only a couple of months ago.

我们有意在乡下购买一幢房子。

We intend to purchase a house in the country.

s r reading nevertheless

nevertheless:

1. conj. however; in spite of that

S R _ Reading _nevertheless

Seat belts undoubtedly save lives. Many people, nevertheless, do not wear them.

政客们承认税收是不受欢迎的,然而他们似乎无意取消。

The politicians admit that the tax is unpopular. Nevertheless they seem determined not to get rid of it.

2.adv.in spite of that; notwithstanding; all the same

He succeeded nevertheless.

你所说的都对, 不过有点不客气。

What you said was true but nevertheless unkind.

s r reading pair off

S R _ Reading _pair off

pair off:

(cause to) form a pair or pairs

Mrs. Smith paired off her guests by age and tastes.

尽管父母不同意,两个年轻人最终还是走到了一起。

The two young people eventually paired off despite their parents’ disapproval.

s r reading decline

decline: v.

refuse (sth. offered), usu. politely (used in the patterns: decline sth.; decline to do sth.)

1) vi.

S R _ Reading _ decline

The boy declined to answer the question.

部长拒绝就和平会谈的进展给出评论。

The minister declined to comment about the progress of the peace talks.

2) vt.

We asked them to come, but they declined our invitation.

飞行员在事故之后拒绝医学治疗。

The pilot declined medical treatment after the accident.

s r reading take to

S R _ Reading _take to

take to:

start to like

I was introduced to the headmistress. I can’t say I took to her.

我认为自己不会喜欢上摇滚乐。

I don’t think I could ever take to rock and roll.

s r reading magnificent

S R _ Reading _magnificent

magnificent: adj.

extremely impressive and attractive; excellent

There were magnificent gold decorations inside the ballroom.

对这类剧目来说,这个剧院很华丽。

It’s a magnificent theatre for this kind of play.

s r reading shed light on

S R _ Reading _shed light on

shed light on:

make (sth.) clear and easy to understand

Her book to some extent sheds new light on the character of the strange man.

我们希望他的信件能够揭示秘密。

We’re hoping that his letter will shed some light on the mystery.

s r reading indicate

S R _ Reading _ indicate

indicate:vt.

show sth. in a way that may not be quite clear

I indicated that his help was not welcome.

所有的迹象表明人们是想要购买我们产品的。

All the signs indicate that people want to buy our product.

s r reading observe

S R _ Reading _ observe

observe:vt.

see and notice; watch carefully

The police observed them entering the bank.

Did you observe where they went?

我注意到他们开会迟到了。

I observed that they were late for the meeting.

s r reading make a habit of

S R _ Reading _ make a habit of

make a habit of:

develop the habit of

You can phone me at work as long as you don’t make a habit of it.

你迟到了十分钟,我希望你以后不要养成迟到的习惯。

You’re ten minutes late. I hope you’re not going to make a habit of this.

s r reading alarm

alarm: vt.

make (sb.) feel suddenly frightened or worried

S R _ Reading _alarm:

Parents are very alarmed at the amount of violence on television.

最轻微的噪音或移动似乎都会使他警觉。

The slightest noise or movement seemed to alarm him.

s r reading by any chance

S R _ Reading _ by any chance

by any chance:

perhaps; possibly

Are you Ms. Sampson’s daughter, by any chance?

他们可能有关系吗?

Are they by any chance related?

s r reading reject

S R _ Reading _ reject

reject: vt.

refuse to accept

As parents, we hope our children won’t reject the values we try to give them.

教师们投票拒绝接受政府的工资提议。

The teachers voted to reject the government’s pay offer.

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S R _ Reading _ S_ While the idea

While the idea of love among animals has been generally rejected by science, doubts remain. For stories such as these suggest that some animals may experience joy, love and heartbreak remarkably like our own.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

虽然科学界普遍不接受动物间存在爱情的看法,但是疑问并未消除。因为这些故事表明有些动物可能体验着和我们人类极其相似的快乐、爱情和悲伤。

s r reading s he compared this

S R _ Reading _ S_ He compared this…

He compared this to a man who meets a woman and — astonished that she is the same girl he used to see running around in a school uniform — falls in love and marries her.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

他将此比作一位男士遇见一位女士,男士惊讶地发现此人正是自己过去常常看见、身着校服东奔西跑的那个女孩,于是爱上了她,并娶其为妻。

s r reading s zookeepers know

S R _ Reading _ S_ Zookeepers know…

Zookeepers know, to their despair, that many species of animals will not breed with just any other animal of their species.

Paraphrase the sentence.

To the zookeepers’ despair, kinds of animals may not produce offspring with any other animals of their kind.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

动物园的饲养员知道,许多种动物不会随便就与同类动物交配,对此他们一筹莫展。

s r reading s i cannot think

S R _ Reading _ S_ I cannot think….

I cannot think of chimpanzees developing emotions, one for the other, comparable in any way to the tenderness, protectiveness, tolerance and spiritual joy that are the mark of human love in its truest and deepest sense.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

我无法想像黑猩猩之间会产生一种可以与最真挚、最深沉的人类之爱相比的情感,如温柔、呵护、容忍和精神上的愉悦。

s r comprehension tasks main

S R _ Comprehension Tasks _main

Comprehension Task

Spot Dictation

Group Work – Listening and Discussion

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Spot Dictation

S R _ Comprehension Tasks _1.1

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words you hear.

Some countries have adopted an animal as a kind of national mascot (吉祥物). The bald eagle is often thought of as the United States, for example. New Zealanders proudly display their kiwi, a native flightless bird. Australians cannot seem to their minds whether the koala or the kangaroo should represent them. China also has two animals which often in everyone’s mind: the dragon and the giant panda. As the dragon is a mythological animal, that the giant panda as the only real animal representative of China.

representing

___________

make up

_______

stand out

________

leaves

______

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Although dragon has been with China for thousands of years, the panda’s inclusion into the Chinese psyche is far more . The giant panda was not even discovered until 1869; it was already a animal at that time, living in the high bamboo forests of Sichuan province and neighboring parts of Tibet. Its more plentiful cousin, the lesser panda, is also referred to as the or bear cat; however, zoologically speaking, it is neither. The lesser panda is a member of the raccoon (浣熊) family,

whereas the giant panda’s is still a dilemma: some authorities consider it a member of the bear family while others that it belongs to the raccoon

family, too.

associated

_________

S R _ Comprehension Tasks1.2

______

recent

____

rare

_______

cat bear

classification

____________

________

maintain

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S R _ Comprehension Tasks 2.1

Group Work — Listening and Discussion

Students are divided into groups of four or five. Listen and discuss the six characters that domestic dogs may have. Then work in groups and put forward one’s views by giving examples or facts.

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Among non-human animals, chimpanzees and domestic dogs are best known for their strong characters. It is generally thought to be described by these variables:

1) AGGRESSIVE

2) CONFIDENT

3) OUTGOING

4) ADAPTABLE

5) INSECURE

6) INDEPENDENT

S R _ Comprehension Tasks 2.2

Which do you think is the most important for a domestic dog? Why?

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1) AGGRESSIVE

The dog with this type of character is extremely dominant and can easily be provoked into biting. The dominant nature of the dog makes him resist human leadership. This type of dog needs precise guidance and a consistent rigorous training program. These dogs are an excellent choice as guard or police dogs.

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2) CONFIDENT

This pup is dominant and self-assured and can be provoked to bite. However, he readily accepts human leadership that is firm and consistent. This dog responds best to an owner that is determined and decisive and, in the right hands, the confident dog has the potential to be a fine working or show dog. He can easily fit into a household provided his owners know what they are doing.

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3) OUTGOING

A dog with this type of character is friendly and sociable. He will be well adjusted if he receives regular training and lots of exercises. Outgoing dogs have a flexible temperament that adapts well to different types of environments provided he is handled correctly. They can be excellent family pets in the right type of household.

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4) ADAPTABLE

The adaptable dog is easy to handle and cooperative. His submissive nature will have him continually looking to his master for leadership. This pup is easy to train, reliable with children, and though he lacks self-confidence, makes a high quality family pet. He is usually less sociable than an outgoing pup but his behavior is gentle and affectionate.

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5) INSECURE

The insecure dog is extremely submissive and lacking in self-confidence.  He bonds very closely with his owner and requires regular companionship and encouragement to bring him out of himself.  If handled incorrectly, the insecure dog will grow up very shy and fearful. For this reason he will do best in a predictable structured lifestyle with owners who are patient and not overly demanding.

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6) INDEPENDENT

A dog with an independent personality is uninterested in people. He will mature into a dog who is not affectionate and who has small need for human companionship. To perform as intended, these dogs require an odd purpose that is not compromised by strong attachments to their owners.