The Eastern Mediterranean Preview Section 1:Natural Environments Section 2:History and Culture Section 3:The Region Today Chapter Wrap-Up
Section 1: Natural Environments Read to Discover • What landforms and rivers are found in the eastern Mediterranean region? • What climates, biomes, and natural resources does the region have?
Section 1: Natural Environments Landforms and Rivers • Turkey—Plains and hills; two east-west mountain ranges, Pontic and Taurus; Anatolian Plateau • Coastal plain in Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel • Rift valley from Africa to Syria, edged with hills • Jordan River flows into Dead Sea • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers from Anatolia to the Persian Gulf
Section 1: Natural Environments Question What are the natural environments of the Eastern Mediterranean?
Section 1: Natural Environments Natural Environments of the Eastern Mediterranean Climates Biomes Resources • Arid • Forests, particularly in Cyprus • Turkey—Coal, copper, iron ore • Semiarid • Diverse in semiarid areas • Dead Sea—Potash, magnesium • Hardy species in desert areas • Oil and natural gas • Mediterranean
Section 1: Natural Environments • Arid, semiarid, and Mediterranean climates • Distance from sea, elevation, rain shadows—Factors in temperature and rainfall • Evergreen forests once common, now mainly gone • Syrian Desert—Scarce plant and animal life • Valuable minerals and energy—Coal, copper, iron ore, potash, magnesium Climates, Biomes, and Natural Resources
Section 2: History and Culture Read to Discover • How have various peoples and empires influenced the eastern Mediterranean? • How did the modern state of Israel develop? • What are the peoples and cultures of the region like?
Section 2: History and Culture Question What peoples and Empires have existed in the Eastern Mediterranean?
Section 2: History and Culture Peoples and Empires Ottoman Empire Early Farming Settlements Hebrews Crusaders European Mandates Egyptians Roman Empire Persians Arabs Hittites Independence Byzantine Empire
Section 2: History and Culture • Several ancient empires occupied the area: Egyptian, Hittite, Persian. • Hebrews established kingdom and Judaism. • Romans exiled Jews, then spread Christianity. • Byzantine Empire brought growth of Eastern Orthodox Church. • Arab Muslim armies occupied the area and spread Islam. • Crusades brought clashes between Muslims and Christians. Peoples and Empires
Section 2: History and Culture • Ottoman Turks established another Muslim empire in the region in the 1300s. • Political struggles, corruption, and rivalries with other countries weakened the empire, along with internal ethnic conflict. • After World War I, Atatürk created the Republic of Turkey. • Former Ottoman territories became European mandates. • Mandates gained independence after World War II. Peoples and Empires (continued)
Section 2: History and Culture Development of Israel • Zionist movement of late 1800s called for Jewish homeland. • Jews moved to Palestine after World War I. • Migration increased in 1930s and 1940s. • UN divided Palestine into Jewish and Arab states in 1947. • Israel declared independence in 1948. • Israel gained territories through war—West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights.
Section 2: History and Culture • Main peoples—Arabs, Jews, Turks, Kurds • Religions—Islam, Judaism, Christianity • Members of same ethnic group may follow different religions—e.g., Christian Arabs. • Cultural identity may be distinct from religious identity. • Urban-rural divide in Turkey—Modern versus traditional customs • Jewish religious law influences Israeli culture. • Multiethnic influences in Israel reflect different national origins. Peoples and Cultures
Section 3: The Region Today Read to Discover • On what activities do the eastern Mediterranean economies rely? • What are the cities of the region like? • What challenges do the people of the region face?
Section 3: The Region Today Question What types of economies do the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean have?
The Economies of the Eastern Mediterranean Section 3: The Region Today Israel Hostile foreign relations, high-tech industries, diamond cutting, tourism Lebanon Growth disrupted by civil war, Palestinian refugees Cyprus Disrupted by civil war, tourism important Jordan Underdeveloped economy, foreign aid, Palestinian refugees, tourism important Turkey Growth slowed by earthquakes, uses dams for agriculture, has textile industry and others, tourism Syria Underdeveloped economy, high unemployment
Section 3: The Region Today Economic Activities • Heavy reliance on agriculture; irrigation important • Strong industrial base in Israel—High-tech, diamond-cutting, chemicals • Carpets and textiles—Key Turkish industry • Tourism—Major industry • Foreign aid received
Section 3: The Region Today • Rapid growth • High birthrates, migration from rural areas • Cramped housing, traffic congestion • Ancient city centers with souks • Newer areas around center • War damage in some cities—Nicosia, Beirut Cities
Section 3: The Region Today • Status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip • Armenian and Kurdish conflict • Islamic fundamentalism in Turkey • Ethnic and religious division—Cyprus, Lebanon, Jordan • Environmental issues—Water scarcity, overgrazing Challenges
Chapter Wrap-UpUnderstanding the Main Ideas • What physical feature extends north from Africa to create the Jordan River valley and the Dead Sea? • How has the region’s vegetation changed over time? • Why did many Jews immigrate to the region that later became Israel? • What are the three main religions of the eastern Mediterranean? What major feature do these religions share? • What two countries are recovering from many years of ethnic and religious conflict?