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CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR. Philosophical Differences Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorship United States: free-enterprise capitalism, republic World War II Conflicts Soviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in war

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causes of the cold war
CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR
  • Philosophical Differences
    • Soviet Union: communism, totalitarian dictatorship
    • United States: free-enterprise capitalism, republic
  • World War II Conflicts
    • Soviets wanted British and Americans to open a second European front earlier in war
    • United States secretly developed atomic bomb
  • Postwar Conflicts
    • Soviet Union refused to live up to wartime promises of elections in Eastern Europe
    • United States made efforts to resist Soviet expansion
the cold war
THE COLD WAR
  • An era of high tension between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted approximately from 1945-1991
  • A war of ideologies – the U.S. wanted the world to be free, capitalist, democratic; the Soviet Union wanted to expand Communism wherever it could
  • The United States wanted to “contain” Communism wherever it could
what were the roots of the cold war
What were the roots of the Cold War?
  • They reached back to the 1920’s and 1930’s
  • The U.S. had viewed the Soviet Union and communism as potential enemies
  • Americans were very hostile to the idea of communism
why did hard feelings arise between the soviets and the americans and british during world war ii
Why did hard feelings arise between the Soviets and the Americans and British during World War II?
  • Roosevelt had promised an early U.S. and British invasion to take some of the burden off the Soviet Union fighting in the east
  • Stalin felt Roosevelt and Churchill dragged their feet
  • Stalin believed the Soviets were left to fight for its own country and for the Allies
what was the iron curtain
What was the Iron Curtain?
  • It’s a term first coined by Winston Churchill at a speech he gave in March 1946
  • Soviets had become increasingly aggressive in making sure that communist governments were in place in Eastern Europe
  • “Iron Curtain” meant the sharp political division between Communist Eastern Europe and democratic Western Europe
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Why was the U.S. alarmed by the Soviet treatment of Germans living in Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe?
  • Stalin had promised the U.S. the Germans would be removed in an orderly and humane manner
  • Instead, they were moved with severe brutality, as hundreds of thousands of Germans died during their relocation
why did stalin want to hold on to eastern europe
Why did Stalin want to hold on to Eastern Europe?
  • Stalin wanted to create a barrier between the Soviet Union and what he considered to be the Soviet’s “historic enemies” in Western Europe
  • To achieve this, he outlawed political parties, jailed or killed political opponents, rigged elections
  • Soviets managed to install Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe
how did the u s respond to soviet actions in europe
How did the U.S. respond to Soviet actions in Europe?
  • The U.S. now had to become the leader of all nations committed to democratic ideals and freedoms
  • The U.S. resisted Soviet attempts to expand its power and influence
  • Containment policy
what were the components of george f kennan s containment policy
What were the components of George F. Kennan’s containment policy?
  • Kennan was an American diplomat and an expert on the Soviet Union
  • U.S. should resist Soviet attempts to expand its power and influence wherever those attempts occurred
  • Military force
  • Economic aid to other countries
what is the connection between the marshall plan and kennan s containment policy
What is the connection between the Marshall Plan and Kennan’s containment policy?
  • George C. Marshall – U.S. Secretary of State
  • June 1947 called for a massive American program of aid to help Europe rebuild and get back on its feet economically
  • Between 1948-1951, U.S. spent over $13 billion in 17 different countries
    • Bought food, farm equipment, rebuilt factories, homes
  • This strengthened Western Europe against the Soviets, which was one of the goals of containment
  • Also built alliances in Western Europe that would be important in the Cold War years to come
what was the result of the marshall plan
What was the result of the Marshall Plan?
  • Recipient countries were soon feeding their people and providing jobs for their workers
  • Strong political and economic ties between the U.S. and Western Europe
what was the crisis in berlin in the late 1940 s and how was it resolved
What was the crisis in Berlin in the late 1940’s and how was it resolved?
  • Allies had control of West Berlin, which was in Soviet province of Germany
  • Soviets did not want pro-democratic government in their part of Germany
  • Soviets blocked traffic into West Berlin; cut West Berliners off from food, coal, fuel
  • Berlin Airlift – British and American airplanes delivered supplies to West Berlin
  • Soviets lift blockade in May 1949
  • Americans flew 2/3 of 280,000 flights
what happened to germany and its capital after world war ii
What happened to Germany and its capital after World War II?
  • Country divided into four zones of occupation – British, French, U.S., and Soviet
  • Berlin also divided into four zones; was surrounded by Soviet zone
what was the federal republic of germany
What was the Federal Republic of Germany?
  • The official name of the new, democratic country also known as West Germany, which consisted of the American, British, and French zones of Germany
  • The Soviet zone became known as East Germany
what is nato and why was it formed
What is NATO and why was it formed?
  • NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Defensive military alliance
  • Original members – Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, United Kingdom (1948)
  • 1949- U.S., Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, and Portugal joined
  • Any armed attack against any member would be considered an attack against all
what was life like in america after world war ii
What was life like in America after World War II?
  • Demand for consumer goods and housing spurred the economy
  • Dramatic rise in birthrate – “Baby Boom” generation
  • Increases in wages had been limited during the war; number of strikes rose sharply
    • 1947 – Taft-Hartley Act – empowered the president to stop strikes when national interest is at stake
why did the economy boom after world war ii
Why did the economy boom after World War II?
  • Millions returned to civilian life
  • People had delayed making purchases during the war
  • They were now eager to buy consumer goods
  • Demand for housing was high
  • Rising birthrates meant bigger homes, more furniture, bigger cars
what happened in politics in postwar america
What happened in politics in postwar America?
  • Truman was criticized by both political parties
  • Republicans gained a majority in Congress in 1946 – first time since 1930
  • Many of Truman’s programs were blocked by Congress
why was harry truman unprepared to take over as president
Why was Harry Truman unprepared to take over as president?
  • He had been vice president for less than three months
  • He actually barely even knew FDR
  • Knew little of the issues
what challenges did truman face upon becoming president
What challenges did Truman face upon becoming president?
  • Had to lead the Allies through the end of the war
  • Had to make the decision to drop the atomic bomb
  • Guide the nation from war to peace
  • Faced political criticism from all sides
    • To the Democrats, he was not FDR, who was their hero
what was the fair deal and what became of it
What was the Fair Deal and what became of it?
  • The Fair Deal was Truman’s domestic program that had a lot in common with many New Deal programs
  • Republican Congress did not support it
  • Few of his Fair Deal ideas became law
how did the u s and other countries try to build a better world after the war
How did the U.S. and other countries try to build a better world after the war?
  • The establishment of the United Nations
  • Creation of the World Bank – aimed at helping poor countries build their economies
  • International Monetary Fund – designed to encourage economic policies that promoted international trade
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – designed to reduce barriers to trade
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights – high goals for all member UN nations – all humans are born free and equal, called for an end to slavery, torture, inhumane punishment; demanded a number of civil rights
in what instances is force permissible under the united nations charter
In what instances is force permissible under the United Nations charter?
  • Only when it serves the common interests of its members
why was the fear of communism growing in the late 1940 s
Why was the fear of communism growing in the late 1940’s?
  • Americans worried about spread of communism in Europe
  • Crisis in Berlin
  • Soviet Union test of atomic weapons
  • Mao Zedong’s communist takeover of China
what event caused president truman to strengthen the nation s military
What event caused President Truman to strengthen the nation’s military?
  • The discovery in September 1949 that the Soviets had detonated an atomic bomb
how did mao zedong s communists end up taking control of china
How did Mao Zedong’s communists end up taking control of China?
  • At the end of World War II, Japan withdraws from China
  • Nationalist government led by Chiang Kai-shek (who was a close ally of Americans) was corrupt
  • Communists took advantage of the opportunity to seize power
  • Civil war in China – communists drive out the Nationalists
what methods and actions did the government use to fight the spread of communism at home
What methods and actions did the government use to fight the spread of communism at home?
  • The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigated possible radicals
  • Truman created a plan to investigate all government officials’ loyalty
  • Smith Act (1940) made it a crime to call for the overthrow of the government
  • McCarran Act (1950) established a special board to investigate Communist involvement; prevented Communists or other radicals from entering the country
why did truman create a plan to investigate federal employees to determine their loyalty
Why did Truman create a plan to investigate federal employees to determine their loyalty?
  • Republicans in Congress claimed that Communists were working in the federal government
  • Truman did not want to appear soft on Communism
how did a series of spy cases fuel the fear of communism
How did a series of spy cases fuel the fear of communism?
  • Alger Hiss – 1948 was accused of being part of a 1930’s plot to place Communists in the government
    • was eventually charged with lying under oath and served prison time
  • Klaus Fuchs – German-born scientist who worked on Manhattan Project – convicted of giving American atomic secrets to Soviets
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg – charged of being the leaders of the spy ring giving secrets to the Soviets; denied all charges; convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage and were executed in 1953
who was senator joseph mccarthy and what was his role in the second red scare
Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy, and what was his role in the second Red Scare?
  • U.S. senator from Wisconsin
  • Frightened Americans with charges that Communists worked in the State Department
  • Gave rise to “McCarthyism” – tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges
  • Would stop at nothing – produced fake photographs to defeat Maryland senator Millard Tydings
  • Claimed he had a “list” of names of communists – never produced the list
what events led americans to believe mccarthy s charge
What events led Americans to believe McCarthy’s charge?
  • Fear of the spread of communism due to the loss of China to the communists
  • Soviet atomic bomb
  • 1947 HUAC investigation that led to the “Hollywood Ten”
    • Led to the blacklisting of hundreds of actors, writers, producers, and directors in Hollywood; careers destroyed
how did television help mccarthy
How did television help McCarthy?
  • Television gave him a wide audience
  • People could see and hear him
  • McCarthy used television as a “bully pulpit” to feed Americans’ fears about Communism
what was the situation in korea before the war began in 1950
What was the situation in Korea before the war began in 1950?
  • Korea had been divided at the 38th parallel following World War II
  • Soviet Union had control of the north, even though they had done next to nothing in defeating Japan
    • North Korea – Communist – led by Kim Il Sung
  • Americans were in charge of the South
    • South Korea – Democratic – led by Syngman Rhee
which neighboring nations have a strong influence on korea
Which neighboring nations have a strong influence on Korea?
  • Korea is a peninsula that lies between Japan and China
  • Peninsula is also close to Russia
  • So Russia, Japan, and China all had a strong influence on Korea
  • After 1905 Korea came under the control of the Japanese, who occupied the country
how did north korea come under soviet control
How did North Korea come under Soviet control?
  • After Japan’s surrender
  • It was decided at the Yalta Conference that North Korea would be under the control of the Soviets
what were the circumstances that led to the start of the korean war
What were the circumstances that led to the start of the Korean War?
  • June 25, 1950 over 100,000 North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and invaded South Korea
  • North Korean troops had Soviet-made guns and Soviet-made tanks
  • American troops had recently withdrawn from South Korea; South Korea was in no position to defend itself
why was president truman committed to helping south korea
Why was President Truman committed to helping South Korea?
  • Truman thought it was important that the U.S. send a message that it would fight to defend freedom against the communists
  • Failure to defend South Korea might send a message America was weak on communism
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower – “We’ll have a dozen Koreas soon if we don’t take a firm stand”
  • Lessons of appeasement from World War II
what were the key battles of the korean war
What were the key battles of the Korean War?
  • By the end of July, North Korean forces had pushed UN troops all the way to southeastern tip of South Korea
  • UN troops were told to hold the port city of Pusan at all costs; UN forces held
  • Sept. 15 MacArthur (leader of UN forces) decided to land 70,000 troops behind North Korean lines at Inchon
  • North Koreans were spread too thin; extremely successful; by October, all of South Korea was back in UN hands
why was the inchon landing important
Why was the Inchon landing important?
  • It completely changed the course of the war; UN forces were on the verge of defeat
  • UN forces quickly recaptured Seoul (capital of S. Korea) and the rest of South Korea
what happened as a result of macarthur s decision to try to take all of north korea
What happened as a result of MacArthur’s decision to try to take all of North Korea?
  • A huge force of 260,000 Chinese troops poured across the border
  • Pushed the UN forces back south of Seoul
  • Also influenced MacArthur into wanting to escalate the war; wanted to expand conflict with bombings of China; also called for the use of the atomic bomb
why was it important to hold the port of pusan
Why was it important to hold the port of Pusan?
  • To give the UN forces a presence in South Korea; losing Pusan would probably have meant the end of the war
  • Gave UN forces a port
what was the public reaction when president truman fired general macarthur
What was the public reaction when President Truman fired General MacArthur?
  • As MacArthur learned of Truman’s wish to win peace with the communists without triggering a larger war, he began publicly criticizing the president and challenged his authority
  • As a result of this, Truman decided he had to fire MacArthur
  • MacArthur was a World War II hero; his firing outraged Americans
results of the korean war
Results of the Korean War
  • Map of Korea looked almost the same as it did before 1950
  • 37,000 American soldiers killed
  • 60,000 UN troops from other countries killed
  • Communist forces suffered 2 million casualties
  • As many as 3 million North and South Korean civilians were killed or injured