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jerome-marshall

CHAPTER 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CHAPTER 11
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  1. CHAPTER 11 Systems Development and Project Managmenet

  2. Introduction to the Systems Approach • It’s methodology for problem solving • The more time spent planning, the better the outcome • Note the process is typically iterative • Systems approach masters • Ed Yourdon • Grady Booch • The GOF • Gamma, Helm, Johnson, Vlissides

  3. The Systems Approach (Steps) • Problem identification (planning) • Systems analysis • Systems design • Systems development • Systems testing • Systems deployment (implementation) • Systems maintenance

  4. The Systems Approach (Problem Identification) • An existing system does not meet a need or expectation • Conduct feasibility studies • If a project seems feasible, assemble a project management plan and team

  5. The Systems Approach (Feasibility Domains) • Organizational • Do we have the human resources • Do we have the organizational resources • Technical • Does the hardware / software exist • Economic • Cost / benefit analysis • Accounting ROI • Present value analysis • Operational

  6. The Systems Approach (Systems Analysis) • Analyze information needs of constituents • Develop a system’s functional requirements • Analysis tools • Brainstorming • Lateral thinking

  7. The Systems Approach (Systems Analysis) • Develop a list of functional requirements • User interface requirements • Processing requirements • Storage • Controls • Input validation • Event notification • Human controls

  8. The Systems Approach (Systems Design) • We need to completely understand the existing system • If it’s not broke, don’t fix it • Understand how users use the existing system • Interviews • Know what users want out of the new system • At times, users don’t know what they want

  9. The Systems Approach (Systems Design) • Logical design • Design how the system will work • Design workflow and information flow • Design the user interface • Screen diagrams • Navigation diagrams • Appropriate use of color • Data design • Entity relationship diagrams

  10. The Systems Approach (Systems Design) • Process design • Tools • Flowcharts • IP charts • UML use-case diagrams • UML activity diagrams • UML Statechart diagrams

  11. The Systems Approach (Systems Design) • Physical design • Select physical hardware and software • Note that there may be site preparation requirements

  12. The Systems Approach (Development) • Hardware and software acquisition • Use RFPs and RFQs to evaluate alternatives • Hardware and software benchmarking • Decisions • Make vs. buy • Lease vs. buy • Internal implementation or outsourcing • Documentation • For users • For IS staff • Preserve organizational memory

  13. End User Development • Positives • Users get what they want • Negatives • Users don’t know what they want • Users may have a narrow minded vision of the system • They may not see how a system contributes to the organizational mission • Loss of centralized control • Users are not experienced in system design methodologies

  14. Testing • My rule is, you cannot ever test too much or be too thorough • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2889527841583480458&q=pwnz

  15. The Systems Approach (Deployment) • User training • Data conversion • Systems testing • Parallel (run 2 systems at once) • Pilot study (deploy in limited sited) • Phased (deploy functionality in stages) • Plunge (only fools rush in) • Systems deployment

  16. The Systems Approach (Maintenance) • Perform a postimplementation audit to determine whether goals were met • Revise system as necessary

  17. Development Methodologies (1) • Waterfall • The systems lifecycle operates as a sequence of states • Sequential development

  18. Development Methodologies (2) • Agile processes and iterative development • Break a large project into several small projects • Deliver results in small stages

  19. Development Methodologies (3) • Extreme programming • It’s an agile methodology at its best • Relies on close communication between users and developers • Relies on experienced developers • Uses small incremental deliverables

  20. Development Methodologies (4) • Scrum delivers small software pieces every 30 days • The term derives from the game of rugby • The development effort is monitored and controlled daily • Some organizations use a combination of these methodologies

  21. Waterfall (Illustration)

  22. Scrum (Illustration)

  23. Successful Software Development Metrics • Control costs – Don’t keep throwing money at a bad project • Avoid scope creep and feature creep • Test and deliver • Involve all constituents

  24. Project Management (Introduction) • We spend about $1 trillion on IT projects • 3 out of 10 project fail • One in four does not following business rules and requirements

  25. Why Projects Fail

  26. Roles in Project Management

  27. Choosing Strategic Projects • Projects should match organizational goals • Projects should be prioritized • Perform financial analysis to determine the best projects

  28. Project Planning • Create a project charter which clearly lists • Scope • Objectives • Constraints • Assumptions • Create a project plan and timeline • Pert and Gantt charts

  29. Project Outsourcing • We outsource to • Tap into outside expertise • Focus on core business goals rather than develop extensive IT infrastructure • Reduce head count and expenses • Minimize technology investment • Reduce cost

  30. Types of Outsoucring • Onshore • Nearshore • Offshore