GPS and E.Q. • GPS: SS7H2: The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century. • b. Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious connection to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and Zionism in Europe. • E.Q.: How did Jews’ religious connection to Palestine, Anti-Semitism, Zionism, and the Holocaust lead to the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4E7GxwCUp6k
Vocabulary – complete voc. cards • Anti-Semitism:hatred of Jews because they are Jewish. • Holocaust: a time when 6 million Jews were killed in concentration camps during WWII • Zionism: Jewish belief that Jews deserve a homeland in Zion • Immigration: moving to one country from another • Civil War: war between members of a country • Refugee: Person who has to leave homeland because of war. • Taliban: a fundamentalist Islamic group who interprets Islamic laws very strictly.
History • Jews believe that God promised them the land of Canaan (now Israel). • Arabs (Muslims) believe God promised them the land of Canaan (called Palestine by Arabs). • In Genesis, God promises Canaan to Abraham’s (founder of Judaism) descendants. • He has 2: • Ishmael – ancestor of all Arabs • Isaac – ancestor of all Jews You see the problem?
Palestine was ruled by many different countries. • The Ottoman Empire controlled it from 1516 till WWI. • In the 1800s, some Jews wanted to make Palestine their very own homeland. • They called it Zion. • They were called Zionists. • They moved to Palestine. • Fights broke out between Zionists and the Arabs who were living there.
Double-cross? Palestine Suez Canal • The Ottoman Empire became weak just before WWI. • The Arabs, Jews, and British wanted to control it. • The British, who controlled it after WWI (because they needed the Suez Canal), first seemed to promise the Arabs they could have control. • BUT – they created Palestine in 1917 and gave the Jews a homeland. • The Arabs were angry…
Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews): many Europeans hated Jews. They attacked them and killed them. • 1939 – another double-cross – the British took back their agreement to give Jews a homeland in Palestine. • The British began to block Jewish immigration into Palestine.
During WWII, Hitler killed 6 million Jews. • They had been trapped in Europe because no country would allow them in. • Hitler wanted to kill all the Jews in the world. • This time is called “The Holocaust”. • After WWII, many remaining Jews wanted their own homeland. • 1948: the U.N. (because they felt bad about not stopping the Holocaust) set up part of Palestine as a Jewish homeland.
The Arabs in Palestine and neighboring countries were angry – the U.N. had given their land away. • Arabs and Israelis began fighting the next day. Arab Israeli Conflict
Why Does It Matter? • Both Palestinians (Muslims) and Israelis (Jews) believe Jerusalem to be their own true capital from the beginning of time. • Jerusalem has • The Dome of the Rock – the rock where Abraham almost sacrificed Isaac and where Muhammad ascended into heaven (holy to Jews and Muslims) • The Temple Mount – where the rock is; also where Solomon built his temple; also where Jesus went when he was 12 and where he later threw out the money-changers (holy to Muslims, Jews, and Christians) • The Western Wall of the Temple Mount – all that is left of Solomon’s Temple (holy to Jews - also to Muslims because it is part of the Temple Mount) • Al-Aqsa Mosque: religious center of Muslim learning (holy to Muslims) • Church of the Holy Sepulchre – built on the site believed to be where Jesus was crucified and buried in the tomb (holy to Christians)
Also in Israel… • Bethlehem has • The Church of the Nativity – built on the site where it is believed Jesus was born in a manger (holy to Christians) • Tomb of Rachel – Jacob’s (son of Isaac) wife (holy to Jews, Muslims, and Christians).
Summary • 4 main reasons for establishment of Israel: • Jewish religiousconnection to the land • Anti-Semitism • Zionism • Holocaust
CRCT Test Prep pages 121-123 349. Which describes the Holocaust? A. the murder of millions of European Jews during WWII B. the destruction of all European governments during WWII C. The bombing of towns & villages in England and Germany during WWII D. The Russian policy of burning ground behind them as they retreated to stop the German invasion A. the murder of millions of European Jews during WWII
350. Why did so many countries in the United Nations feel it was right to create Israel in 1948? A. There was no one else living on the land at the time B. Many felt the Jews deserved help due to their suffering during the Holocaust. C. Arab countries nearby supported the creation of a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. D. All national groups were given homelands at the same time. B. Many felt the Jews deserved help due to their suffering during the Holocaust
351. What is Zionism? • the idea that all religious groups should have their own state • the plan to let Arabs and Jews share the land in Palestine equally • The hope that all governments will be based on religious principles • The belief that Jews deserved to return to a homeland in Zion where they had lived in Biblical times D. The belief that Jews deserved to return to a homeland in Zion where they had lived in Biblical times
352. What world organization created the new state of Israel? • The United Nations • The European Union • The League of Nations • The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries A. The United Nations
353. How did Arabs living in Palestine in 1948 feel about the creation of the new state of Israel? • They supported it fully. • They rejected it as unfair to them. • The Arab population in Palestine was largely unaffected by the new state. • They agreed to try to work it out although they were unhappy about the decision. B. They rejected it as unfair to them.
354. When war broke out in Palestine, what countries joined with the Palestinian Arabs to try to stop the creation of the new state of Israel? • The United States • Neighboring Arab countries • The major nations of Europe • The countries belonging to the United Nations B. Neighboring Arab countries
355. Which countries border the Gaza Strip? A. Iraq and Jordan B. Israel and Egypt C. Lebanon and Syria D. Israel and West Bank B. Israel and Egypt
356. What is the approximate location of the Dead Sea from Jerusalem? A. East B. West C. Southeast D. Southwest C. Southeast Dead Sea
357. What country is found at 31° N, 34° E? A. Egypt B. Israel C. Jordan D. Saudi Arabia A. Egypt
GPS and E.Q. • GPS: SS7H2c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle East. • E.Q.: How are land and religion reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle East?
Land and Religion Continue to Cause Conflicts Today • May 1948 – civil war between Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews. • Neighboring Arab countries supported Palestinian Arabs in war. • Israelis won – took more land. • Many Palestinians became refugees (lost their homes due to war). • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lB7q5YHfP_w
Still Fighting • There have been more wars between Palestinians and Israelis over the last 50 years. • Many Palestinians still live in refugee camps. • People on both sides are trying to solve the problems. • Arabs support Palestinians. • U.S. supports Israel. • Arab-Israeli conflict affects our dealings with all Middle East countries. From Saudi Arabia
I’M YOUR SPYMordechai VanunuI am the clerk, the technician, the mechanic,the driver.They said, Do this, do that, don’t look leftor right,don’t read the text. Don’t look at the wholemachine. Youare only responsible for this one bolt. For thisone rubber-stamp.This is your only concern. Don’t botherwith what is above you.Don’t try to think for us. Go on, drive. Keepgoing. On, on.So they thought, the big ones, the smart ones,the futurologists.There is nothing to fear. Not to worry.Everything is ticking just fine. • I’M YOUR SPYMordechai VanunuI am the clerk, the technician, the mechanic,the driver.They said, Do this, do that, don’t look leftor right,don’t read the text. Don’t look at the wholemachine. Youare only responsible for this one bolt. For thisone rubber-stamp.This is your only concern. Don’t botherwith what is above you.
Don’t try to think for us. Go on, drive. Keepgoing. On, on.So they thought, the big ones, the smart ones,the futurologists.There is nothing to fear. Not to worry.Everything is ticking just fine. Our little clerk is a diligent worker. He’s asimple mechanic.He’s a little man.Little men’s ears don’t hear, their eyesdon’t see.
We have heads, they don’tAnswer them, said he to himself, said thelittle man,the man with a head of his own. Who is incharge? Who knowswhere this train is going?Where is their head? I too have a head.Why do I see the whole engine.Why do I see the precipice —is there a driver on this train?
The clerk driver technician mechaniclooked up.He stepped back and saw — what a monster.Can’t believe it. Rubbed his eyes and — yes,it’s there all right. I’m all right. I do seethe monster. I’m part of the system.
I signed this form. Only now I am reading therest of it.This bolt is part of a bomb. This bolt is me.Howdid I fail to see, and how do the others go onfitting bolts. Who else knows?Who has seen? Who has heard — Theemperor really is naked.I see him. Why me? It’s not for me. It’s too big.
Rise and cry out. Rise and tell the people.You can.I, the bolt, the technician, mechanic —Yes, you.You are the secret agent of the people. You arethe eyes of the nation.Agent-spy, tell us what you’ve seen. Tell uswhat the insiders, the clever ones, havehidden from us.
Without you, there is only the precipice.Only catastrophe.I have no choice. I’m a little man, a citizen,one of the people,but I’ll do what I have to. I’ve heard the voiceof my conscienceand there is nowhere to hide.The world is small, small for Big Brother.I’m your mission. I’m doing my duty. Takeit from me.
Come and see for yourselves. Lighten myburden. Stop the train.Get off the train. The next stop — nucleardisaster. The next book,the next machine. No. There is no such thing.
Mordechai Vanunu, Israel, was a subordinate nuclear technician at what proved to be a clandestine nuclear weapons program. Following his convictions he delivered evidence to a London newspaper, the Sunday Times.
Israel’s secret police abducted him to Israel, via Rome, in grave violation of the territorial integrity of both Britain and Italy. He was sentenced as a spy to 18 years in prison. He wrote «I’m Your Spy» early during the first 11 1/2 years he was held in strict isolation. • He was released, with restrictions not to leave the country or talk with foreigners. • He has been rearrested in 2007 and 2010 for violating his release terms.
Terms of Release • he shall not be able to have contacts with citizens of other countries but Israel • his telephone and Internet use shall be monitored • he shall not own cellular phones • he shall not approach or enter embassies and consulates • he shall not come within 500 metres of any international border crossing • he shall not visit any port of entry and airport • he shall not leave the State of Israel
By not acknowledging possession of nuclear weapons, Israel avoids a US legal prohibition on funding countries which proliferate weapons of mass destruction. Such an admission would prevent Israel from receiving over $2 billion each year in military and other aid from Washington.
CRCT Test Prep page 124 358. What was the outcome of the 1948 War between the new state of Israel and the Arabs living in and around Palestine? • The conflict ended and all Palestinian Arabs became citizens in the new State of Israel. • Israel won the war and the new State of Israel was even larger than originally planned. • Almost no Jewish people were willing to go to Israel because of the country’s angry neighbors. • The U.N. decided to withdraw the proposal to create a State of Israel because of all the problems it caused in the area. B. Israel won the war and the new State of Israel was even larger than originally planned.
359. What is a “refugee”? • A person who had to leave his home because of war. • A person who opens his home to those who need a safe place to stay. • A person who refuses to take in someone who is without a safe place to stay. • A person who refuses to leave his home even though it is dangerous to stay there. A. A person who had to leave his home because of war.
360. What has become of many of the Palestinians who became refugees in 1948? • Many still live in refugee camps. • Most have become Israeli citizens. • They have been given a state of their own in which to live. • They have given up any claim to return to the land they lost in 1948. A. Many still live in refugee camps.
GPS and E.Q. • GPS: SS7H2d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. • E.Q.: Why has the U.S. gotten involved in conflicts in Kuwait, Afghanistan, and Iraq?
Explain U.S. presence in SW Asia; include Persian Gulf Conflict, invasions of Afghanistan, and Iraq • The U.S. has been interested in SW Asia since the 1800s. • We need their oil. • We were involved in the negotiations after the Ottoman Empire broke up. • We supported the creation of Israel in 1948.
Persian Gulf War • August 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait. • Iraq wanted Kuwait’s oil supplies. • Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s leader, said Kuwait took more oil than they were allowed from shared oil fields. • He said after the Ottoman Empire broke up, Kuwait should have been part of Iraq. • When Kuwait was created in 1920, Iraq lost its coastline on the Persian Gulf.
The U.S. gets a lot of oil from Kuwait and nearby Saudi Arabia (255 thousand barrels/day from Kuwait in February 2013). • Iraq was not friends with the U.S. • Kuwait belongs to the United Nations. • The U.N. helps member countries who are attacked for no reason. Kuwait oil fields ignited by Iraqis
The U.N. put together a military force to free Kuwait from the Iraqi invasion. • We sent troops as part of this military force to protect our oil interests. • This was called the Persian Gulf War or Desert Storm. • 39 countries were part of the U.N. military force. • In 3 months, Iraq gave up and signed a truce. They left Kuwait.
9/11 • September 11, 2001: Al-Qaeda, a terrorist group led by Osama bin-Laden, crashed planes into the World Trade Center in New York City, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania (headed for the White House until the passengers attacked the terrorists and diverted the plane). • Al-Qaeda wants to stop western influence in Southwest Asia.
We began a military operation in Afghanistan. • Our sources said the radical Muslim government, the Taliban, in Afghanistan, was letting bin-Laden and his terrorists hide in their mountains. • After we sent in troops, the Taliban government collapsed.