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Psychology 291 Behavior Modification Basics PowerPoint Presentation
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Psychology 291 Behavior Modification Basics

Psychology 291 Behavior Modification Basics

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Psychology 291 Behavior Modification Basics

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  1. Psychology 291 Behavior Modification Basics

  2. Building blocks of learning • Behavior mod requires learning • Knowledge types: • Explicit (declarative) knowledge • Tacit (procedural) knowledge • Generally must learn facts (the what) before you can learn how to apply them (the how)

  3. Key Constructs in Behavior Modification • Antecedents • What leads to the behavior? • Behavior • Consequences • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment

  4. Reinforcement Schedules • Continuous – one behavior, one consequence • Intermittent • Fixed Interval • Variable Interval • Fixed Ratio • Variable Ratio Amount of time Number of behaviors

  5. What happens when reinforcement is removed? • Ideally, people have learned the behavior and it will continue over time • Not always the case -- field study on safety behaviors (Komaki, Barwick & Scott, 1978)

  6. Learning Through Feedback • What is feedback? • What are good sources of feedback? • Feedback is most useful for learning when it contains information about what to correct

  7. 360 Degree Feedback • Getting feedback from multiple sources around you • Provides a more complete picture – no one source has all the information • Challenges • Variation in feedback • Comfort in providing feedback • Administrative and practical issues (e.g., time)

  8. Feedback contingencies • All feedback is not equal • Source credibility: People evaluate the credibility of the feedback source before deciding what actions to take (Podsakoff & Fahr, 1987) • Can I trust this person? • Is this person knowledgeable? • Feedback can be distracting • Negative feedback can cause people to direct attention to themselves (e.g., impression management) Feedback Intervention Theory, Kluger & DiNisi, 1996)

  9. Social Learning Theory • Much learning occurs by observing others • Especially tacit knowledge • Model positive behaviors, avoid negative behaviors • Helps maintain self-esteem (don’t have to ask as many questions) • Can be problems with interpretation of behaviors

  10. Self-Directed Learning • Learner makes own choices regarding many aspects of the learning process • When and how long • Where • In what order • Critical as learning becomes decentralized • Often the case with computer-based training • Novices often don’t know how best to approach the learning task

  11. Key learning points • Behavior modification relies on pairing of response and reinforcement • Most effective feedback provides direction for learning • Self-directed learning becoming more important in organizations • Can monitor own learning patterns to improve effectiveness