behavior modification 1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Behavior Modification 1 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Behavior Modification 1

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

Behavior Modification 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 645 Views
  • Uploaded on

Behavior Modification 1. Respondent behavior : (also called reflex behavior) is that behavior in which responses are strengthened or weakened primarily by stimuli that precede the response. (Pavlov)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Behavior Modification 1' - betty_james


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
behavior modification 1
Behavior Modification 1
  • Respondent behavior: (also called reflex behavior) is that behavior in which responses are strengthened or weakened primarily by stimuli that precede the response. (Pavlov)
  • Operant behavior: The individual “operates” upon his environment to produce a certain event. (Skinner)
  • Conditioning: When behavior is manipulated, the term “conditioning” is used. - classical and operant conditioning
  • Reinforcement:The consequence of operant behavior is called a reinforcer.
  • Response , timing and contingency

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 2
Behavior Modification 2

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 3
Behavior Modification 3

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 4
Behavior Modification 4
  • The value of observing, recording and measuring behavior:
  • support your opinions about a situation or behavior which should be altered
  • reveal a pattern of behavior which might suggest ways to alter the behavior
  • reveal discrepancies between your perception of the situation and the situation as it exists.
  • Visually indicate IF your program was successful,HOW successful it was, and WHEN the significant change occurred.
  • Describe interaction for purposes of pinpointing target behavior for further programming

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 5
Behavior Modification 5
  • Target behavior: That behavior which is labeled, specifically defined, and is the target for observation, recording and, consequently, for modification is called the target behavior.
  • We can also look for behavior that is incompatible with the behavior of concern as a target behavior.
  • Behavior modification claims to be a technique with a positive orientation. It can be used to increase as well as decrease behavior:
  • stop fighting-get along with peers / stop cursing - use other words a.s.o.

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 6
Behavior Modification 6
  • Target behavior: That behavior which is labeled, specifically defined, and is the target for observation, recording and, consequently, for modification is called the target behavior.
  • We can also look for behavior that is incompatible with the behavior of concern as a target behavior.
  • Behavior modification claims to be a technique with a positive orientation. It can be used to increase as well as decrease behavior:
  • stop fighting-get along with peers / stop cursing - use other words a.s.o.

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 7
Behavior Modification 7
  • Finding reinforcers:
  • Finding proper reinforcers is very important, but also difficult since what hay be a positive reinforcer for one student may be a negative one for another. Taking a shower has been used as both pos. and neg. Reinforcer.
  • The trick is to know the student:
  • 1. Observe him , see what he chooses to do when he does not have to be doing something.
  • 2. Ask him, his friends or parent what his choice behavior are.

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 8
Behavior Modification 8
  • Primary reinforcers:
  • build on biological based needs. Can seems primitive and unworthy, but can be effective - especially for mentally retarded.
  • Advantages: Fast, and relatively simple to administrate
  • Disadvantages: Easy to be “filled up”, economy, moral or ethical reactions?, reactions from others, self -esteem?

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 9
Behavior Modification 9
  • Secondary or socially reinforcers:
  • Attention (best+), praise ,expression of joy etc.
  • Advantages: Natural, easy to administer but also to forget, free, be be used to all groups - also you and me
  • Disadvantages: Not all children react positively on praise and not from every teacher. Not everybody (teachers ) are able to communicate genuine social ,positive reinforcement. Attention from peers can be stronger ,and that can counteract the teacher
  • Is regarded as the most important reinforcer

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 10
Behavior Modification 10
  • When to reinforce?
  • Continuous reinforcement schedule:Every response is reinforced. Very demanding approach and vulnerable for extinction.
  • Intermittent reinforcement reinforcement schedule: Only some responses are reinforced:
  • 1. fixed ratio: every n’ response
  • 2. Variable ratio: between each ex. 15 or 20
  • 3. Fixed interval : every n’ minute
  • 4. Variable interval: Between f.i. Every 5’ and 10’ minute
  • 2 and 4 is most resistant for extinction

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 11 punishment
Behavior Modification 11 Punishment
  • Removing a positive or present a negative reinforcer
  • Some people think it is immoral in an educational context
  • Punishment can be physical – social or psychological

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 12 punishment
Behavior Modification 12 Punishment
  • Some disatvantages:
  • It does not eliminate, it merely slows down the behavior
  • It does not show what appropriate behavior is
  • Aggressive behavior from teachers can serve as a bad model
  • Emotional results as fear and withdrawal are maladaptive

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 13 punishment
Behavior Modification 13 Punishment
  • ”Effective” punishment are supposed to be
  • Given imidiately
  • Relies on withdrawal of reinforcement andovides steps for regaining them
  • Makes use of warning signals
  • Is carried out in a calm , matter of fact way
  • Is accompanied by positive reinforcement of behavior imcompatible with behavior being punished
  • Also uses procedures to make sure that the undesired behavior do not receive positive reinforcement

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 14 developing desirable behavior
Behavior Modification 14 Developing desirable behavior
  • Reinforce desirable behavior, overlook minor faults. The desirable behavior must be reasonable frequent
  • Shaping: Reinforce behavior that has elements of the desirable one
  • Modelling: Reinforce desirable behavior seen at others, but not everybody are potent models
  • Special techniques: Selfinstruction (Bernstein- especially used with small children with ADHD)
  • Overcorrection – Azrin – used at enuresis

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 15 eliminate undesirable behavior
Behavior Modification 15Eliminate undesirable behavior
  • Overlook minor faults and reinforce incompatible behavior
  • Extinction: Totally overlooking. No reinforcement what so ever – difficult to administer
  • Time out from reinforcement – sending out for a while
  • Saturation - So much reinforcement that it gives a paradoxical effect

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 16 token economy
Behavior Modification 16Token economy
  • Advantages:
  • Children learn to postpone satisfaction of basic needs
  • It’s easy to avoid saturation. You can change the back – up reinforcer
  • You can reach target behavior when children are little receivable for social reinforcement
  • Effective because it can be administrated at once
  • Gives children the experience that behavior gives them consequensis

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 17 token economy
Behavior Modification 17Token economy
  • Problems – or important issues by use
  • Target behavior and rules for earning tokens must be clearly defined and specified
  • Children must be able to obtain the back- up as well as the target behavior
  • The back up must appeal and variations?
  • The number of tokens must be reasonable to obtain the goal
  • The earnings potential should – if possible- gather different situations
  • The child should preferably compare with himself – not others

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio

behavior modification 18 discuss
Behavior Modification 18Discuss
  • Advantages by using behavior modification
  • Disadvantages?
  • Moral or ethical aspects?
  • Is it appropriate or useful in your country – in what kind of settings?

Behavior Modification 18

TE Behavior modification Isp- uio