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Behavior Modification I

Behavior Modification I

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Behavior Modification I

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  1. Behavior Modification I Lecture 10

  2. Changing Our Behavior • Behavior modification: Systematically applying behavior principles to the task of changing someone’s target behavior … our own or someone else’s. Janice & John Baldwin • Operant conditioning principles ~

  3. Some Applications • Personal •  physical fitness •  motivation • Psychotherapy • panic attacks • phobias • Special education • basic life skills • social skills ~

  4. Steps in Behavior Modification • Scientific use of behavior (learning) principles • Goal setting • Behavioral Definitions • Functional Analysis • Objective measurement • Data collection • Evaluation ~

  5. Goal Setting • Identify target behavior • the one we wish to change • Excesses • undesirable behaviors • Deficits • lack certain skills • Developing human potential • self-actualization ~

  6. Excesses Deficits Human Potential

  7. Behavioral Definitions • Careful definition of target behavior • detailed • objective • measurable in numerical units • Example • vague: I want to study more. • effective: On every study day, I want to study 30 minutes longer per day. ~

  8. Chains of Behavior • Accomplishment of overall goal • Target behavior defined in smaller operant units • linked together in chain of activities • Can focus on weakest links first • divide it into smaller behavioral units • Basic skills --> integrated whole • avoid coaches’ trap ~

  9. Behavioral Definitions: Advantages • Establishes performance level • reward when goal attained • no reward for suboptimal performance • Helps create rules to solve problems • if goals not being met • how to address shortfall • Helps evaluate merit of behavior changes • is it producing the desired effect? • is a different approach needed? ~

  10. Functional Analysis • Identify controlling (maintaining) variables • Antecedents • Consequences • Hypotheses on role of behavior • ABC model (SD : B  SR) • Used to create behavioral interventions • reduce unwanted behaviors • while encouraging desirable one ~

  11. Functional Analysis • Antecedents • promote target behavior • inhibit target behavior • Behavior • desired / undesired • other behaviors • Consequences • promote target behavior • inhibit target behavior

  12. Functional Analysis: Example • Self-injurious behavior (SIB) • Iwata et al • Antecedent • parents attention directed elsewhere • Behavior • SIB • Consequence • attention directed towards child • Operant phenomena? ~

  13. Functional Analysis: Example • or… • Antecedent • direct child to eat stewed tomatoes • Behavior • SIB • Consequence • demand withdrawn • Operant phenomena? ~

  14. Objective Measurement • Behavior and controlling stimuli • Objectively record quantifiable • form • timing • frequency • Establish baseline for behavior~

  15. Objective Measurement • Example: Reduce smoking • Form • # of packs, cigarettes, or puffs? • practical choice of measurement • Frequency • ratio of count & length of observation • Timing • duration of behavior ~

  16. Objective Measurement • Other useful measures • % of task completed • groups: # or % of people completing task • rating scales: qualitative behaviors • Use combination of scales • No predetermined scale for a behavior •  quality of social contacts, not number • or vice versa • depends on individual’s goals ~

  17. Data Collection • Collect & record data • graphs • checklists • Notebooks • ABC Diaries, etc. • About ABC • Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences ~

  18. ABC Diary for Child’s Tantrums

  19. Data Collection: Methods • Direct observation • Indirect observation • results of behavior • Questionnaires / interviews • Goal • how is behavior function of antecedents & consequences ~

  20. Evaluation • Evaluate all steps • functional analysis • See convincing behavioral changes? • Inspect records/graphs • Criteria • normalcy • health & personal adjustment • consumer satisfaction • Importance of practical criteria • i.e., 50% decline in arson behavior? ~