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Behavior Modification I. Lecture 10. Changing Our Behavior. Behavior modification: Systematically applying behavior principles to the task of changing someone’s target behavior … our own or someone else’s. Janice & John Baldwin Operant conditioning principles ~. Some Applications.

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changing our behavior
Changing Our Behavior
  • Behavior modification:

Systematically applying behavior principles to the task of changing someone’s target behavior

… our own or someone else’s.

Janice & John Baldwin

  • Operant conditioning principles ~
some applications
Some Applications
  • Personal
    •  physical fitness
    •  motivation
  • Psychotherapy
    • panic attacks
    • phobias
  • Special education
    • basic life skills
    • social skills ~
steps in behavior modification
Steps in Behavior Modification
  • Scientific use of behavior (learning) principles
    • Goal setting
    • Behavioral Definitions
    • Functional Analysis
    • Objective measurement
    • Data collection
    • Evaluation ~
goal setting
Goal Setting
  • Identify target behavior
    • the one we wish to change
  • Excesses
    • undesirable behaviors
  • Deficits
    • lack certain skills
  • Developing human potential
    • self-actualization ~
slide6

Excesses

Deficits

Human

Potential

behavioral definitions
Behavioral Definitions
  • Careful definition of target behavior
    • detailed
    • objective
    • measurable in numerical units
  • Example
    • vague: I want to study more.
    • effective: On every study day, I want to study 30 minutes longer per day. ~
chains of behavior
Chains of Behavior
  • Accomplishment of overall goal
    • Target behavior defined in smaller operant units
    • linked together in chain of activities
  • Can focus on weakest links first
    • divide it into smaller behavioral units
  • Basic skills --> integrated whole
    • avoid coaches’ trap ~
behavioral definitions advantages
Behavioral Definitions: Advantages
  • Establishes performance level
    • reward when goal attained
    • no reward for suboptimal performance
  • Helps create rules to solve problems
    • if goals not being met
    • how to address shortfall
  • Helps evaluate merit of behavior changes
    • is it producing the desired effect?
    • is a different approach needed? ~
functional analysis
Functional Analysis
  • Identify controlling (maintaining) variables
    • Antecedents
    • Consequences
    • Hypotheses on role of behavior
    • ABC model (SD : B  SR)
  • Used to create behavioral interventions
    • reduce unwanted behaviors
    • while encouraging desirable one ~
functional analysis11
Functional Analysis
  • Antecedents
    • promote target behavior
    • inhibit target behavior
  • Behavior
    • desired / undesired
    • other behaviors
  • Consequences
    • promote target behavior
    • inhibit target behavior
functional analysis example
Functional Analysis: Example
  • Self-injurious behavior (SIB)
    • Iwata et al
  • Antecedent
    • parents attention directed elsewhere
  • Behavior
    • SIB
  • Consequence
    • attention directed towards child
  • Operant phenomena? ~
functional analysis example13
Functional Analysis: Example
  • or…
  • Antecedent
    • direct child to eat stewed tomatoes
  • Behavior
    • SIB
  • Consequence
    • demand withdrawn
  • Operant phenomena? ~
objective measurement
Objective Measurement
  • Behavior and controlling stimuli
  • Objectively record

quantifiable

    • form
    • timing
    • frequency
  • Establish baseline for behavior~
objective measurement15
Objective Measurement
  • Example: Reduce smoking
  • Form
    • # of packs, cigarettes, or puffs?
    • practical choice of measurement
  • Frequency
    • ratio of count & length of observation
  • Timing
    • duration of behavior ~
objective measurement16
Objective Measurement
  • Other useful measures
    • % of task completed
    • groups: # or % of people completing task
    • rating scales: qualitative behaviors
  • Use combination of scales
  • No predetermined scale for a behavior
    •  quality of social contacts, not number
    • or vice versa
    • depends on individual’s goals ~
data collection
Data Collection
  • Collect & record data
    • graphs
    • checklists
    • Notebooks
    • ABC Diaries, etc.
  • About ABC
    • Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences ~
data collection methods
Data Collection: Methods
  • Direct observation
  • Indirect observation
    • results of behavior
  • Questionnaires / interviews
  • Goal
    • how is behavior function of antecedents & consequences ~
evaluation
Evaluation
  • Evaluate all steps
    • functional analysis
  • See convincing behavioral changes?
    • Inspect records/graphs
  • Criteria
    • normalcy
    • health & personal adjustment
    • consumer satisfaction
  • Importance of practical criteria
    • i.e., 50% decline in arson behavior? ~