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Chapter 11. The Nervous System The Brain, Cranial Nerves, Autonomic Nervous System and the Special Senses. Introduction . Brain is divided into four main parts Brainstem: controls breathing, heartbeat rates and reactions to auditory and visual stimuli Diencephalon: controls homeostasis

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

The Nervous System

The Brain, Cranial Nerves, Autonomic Nervous System and the Special Senses

introduction
Introduction
  • Brain is divided into four main parts
    • Brainstem: controls breathing, heartbeat rates and reactions to auditory and visual stimuli
    • Diencephalon: controls homeostasis
    • Cerebrum: controls intellectual processes and emotions
    • Cerebellum: maintains body posture and balance
the principal parts of the brain cont d
The Principal Parts of the Brain (cont’d.)
  • Main parts: brainstem, diencephalon, cerebrum and cerebellum
  • Protection
    • Cranial bones
    • Meninges
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Ventricles
    • Interventricular foramen
the anatomy and functions of the brainstem cont d
The Anatomy and Functions of the Brainstem (cont’d.)
  • Medulla oblongata
    • Ascending and descending tracts
    • Connect spinal cord with the brain
    • Some tracts cross over in medulla
    • Reticular formation: controls consciousness
    • Reflex centers
the anatomy and functions of the brainstem cont d1
The Anatomy and Functions of the Brainstem (cont’d.)
  • Pons varolii
    • Connects spinal cord with brain
    • Connects parts of brain with each other
    • Helps control breathing
the anatomy and functions of the brainstem cont d2
The Anatomy and Functions of the Brainstem (cont’d.)
  • Midbrain
    • Ventral cerebral peduncles: convey impulses from cortex to pons and spinal cord
    • Dorsal tectum: reflex center
    • Controls movement of head and eyeball (visual stimuli)
    • Controls movement of head and trunk (auditory stimuli)
the anatomy and functions of the diencephalon cont d
The Anatomy and Functions of the Diencephalon (cont’d.)
  • Optic tracts
  • Mamillary bodies: memory and emotional responses
  • Thalamus
    • Relay station for sensory impulses
    • Interpretation center for pain, temperature and touch
  • Epithalamus: contains pineal gland
the anatomy and functions of the diencephalon cont d1
The Anatomy and Functions of the Diencephalon (cont’d.)
  • Hypothalamus: homeostasis
    • Controls and integrates autonomic nervous system
    • Receives sensory impulses from internal organs
    • Controls pituitary gland and links endocrine and nervous systems
the cerebrum structure and function cont d1
The Cerebrum: Structure and Function (cont’d.)
  • Cerebral cortex: gray matter surface
  • Longitudinal fissure separates two hemispheres
  • Gyri: folds
  • Sulci: grooves
  • Corpus callosum: bridge connecting two hemispheres
the cerebrum structure and function cont d2
The Cerebrum: Structure and Function (cont’d.)
  • Surface of the cortex
    • Motor areas control muscular movements
    • Sensory areas interpret sensory impulses
    • Association areas process emotions and intellect
the cerebrum structure and function cont d3
The Cerebrum: Structure and Function (cont’d.)
  • Cerebral hemispheres
    • Frontal lobe: muscle movement, moods, aggression, smell, motivation
    • Parietal lobe: touch, pain, balance, taste, temperature
    • Temporal lobe: hearing, smell, memory, abstract thought, judgment
    • Occipital lobe: vision
the cerebellum structure and function cont d
The Cerebellum: Structure and Function (cont’d.)
  • Butterfly-shaped
  • Two partially separated hemispheres connected by vermis
  • Functions
    • Coordinating muscular movements
    • Maintaining posture
    • Maintaining balance
the autonomic nervous system cont d
The Autonomic Nervous System (cont’d.)
  • Subdivision of efferent PNS
  • Functions without conscious effort
  • Regulates functions of internal organs
  • Assists in maintaining homeostasis
  • Helps deal with emergency situations
the autonomic nervous system cont d1
The Autonomic Nervous System (cont’d.)
  • Sympathetic
    • Energy and stressful situations
    • Increases heartbeat and breathing rates
    • Neurotransmitters: acetylcholine and norepinephrine
the autonomic nervous system cont d2
The Autonomic Nervous System (cont’d.)
  • Parasympathetic
    • Restores body to nonstressful state
    • Neurotransmitter: acetylcholine
    • Stimulates digestion, urination and defecation
the 12 cranial nerves and their functions cont d
The 12 Cranial Nerves and Their Functions (cont’d.)
  • (I) Olfactory: smell
  • (II) Optic: sight
  • (III) Oculomotor: movement of eyeball, constriction of pupil
  • (IV) Trochlear: movement of eyeball
the 12 cranial nerves and their functions cont d1
The 12 Cranial Nerves and Their Functions (cont’d.)
  • (V) Trigeminal: chewing, sensations in teeth
  • (VI) Abducens: movement of eyeball
  • (VII) Facial: facial expression, taste, tear and salivary glands
  • (VIII) Vestibulocochlear: equilibrium, hearing
the 12 cranial nerves and their functions cont d2
The 12 Cranial Nerves and Their Functions (cont’d.)
  • (IX) Glossopharyngeal: swallowing, taste, salivary glands
  • (X) Vagus: certain muscle movements, sensory impulses
  • (XI) Accessory: swallowing, head movement
  • (XII) Hypoglossal: swallowing, speech
the sense of smell
The Sense of Smell
  • Molecules in air dissolve in nasal mucus
  • Bipolar sensory neurons transfer chemical impulse
  • Olfactory bulbs receive impulse
  • Impulse sent to olfactory cortex
  • Odor variety dependent on brain interpretation
the sense of taste
The Sense of Taste
  • Taste buds on tongue, palate and pharynx
  • Taste bud cell types
    • Exterior capsule: epithelial cells
    • Interior: taste cells
  • Taste depends on chemicals dissolved in saliva
  • Taste influenced by olfactory sensations
the sense of sight
The Sense of Sight
  • Eyes protected by eyelids and eyelashes
  • Tears
    • Lubricate the eyes
    • Contain bacteriolytic lysozyme enzyme
    • Contain salt and gamma globulin
animation vision
Animation - Vision
  • [Insert Vision_SWF folder]
the sense of hearing and equilibrium
The Sense of Hearing and Equilibrium
  • Outer ear
    • Auricle: external, visible, flexible part
    • External auditory meatus
      • Lined with hair and ceruminous glands
    • Tympanic membrane: vibrates in response to sound
the sense of hearing and equilibrium cont d
The Sense of Hearing and Equilibrium (cont’d.)
  • Middle ear
    • Auditory ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes
    • Openings: oval and round windows
    • Eustachian tube: equalizes pressure
the sense of hearing and equilibrium cont d1
The Sense of Hearing and Equilibrium (cont’d.)
  • Inner ear
    • Cochlea: hearing
    • Equilibrium
      • Static: vestibule
      • Kinetic: semicircular canals
the sense of hearing and equilibrium cont d2
The Sense of Hearing and Equilibrium (cont’d.)
  • Structures of the ear shown in cross section
animation hearing
Animation - Hearing
  • Insert Hearing_SWF folder]
summary
Summary
  • Named the principal parts of the brain
  • Discussed the functions of the major parts of the brain
  • Named the 12 cranial nerves
  • Discussed the role of the autonomic nervous system and its divisions
  • Described the special senses and the organs involved