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Chapter 4: Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training. Fitness is critical for performance and injury prevention Improper conditioning is a major cause in sports related injuries Areas of concern: Flexibility Muscular strength, endurance, power Cardiorespiratory endurance

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Fitness is critical for performance and injury prevention
  • Improper conditioning is a major cause in sports related injuries
  • Areas of concern:
    • Flexibility
    • Muscular strength, endurance, power
    • Cardiorespiratory endurance
  • Coaches need to develop programs that focus on injury prevention and performance enhancement
periodization in training and conditioning
Periodization in Training and Conditioning
  • Traditional seasons no longer exist for serious athletes
  • Periodization
    • Achieve peak performance
    • Decrease injuries and overtraining
    • Program that spans various seasons
    • Modify program relative to athlete’s needs
year round training cycle
Year Round Training Cycle
  • Complete training cycle
  • Seasonal approach based on preseason, in-season, and off-season
  • Changes in intensity, volume, specificity of training occur in order to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition
  • Broken into periods or phases (lasting weeks or months)
periods or phases
Periods or Phases
  • Transition period:
    • Follows last competition (early off-season)
    • Unstructured (escape rigors of training)
  • Preparatory period:
    • Off-season
    • Hypertropy/endurance phase (Low intensity with high volume)
      • Allows for development of endurance base
      • Lasts several weeks to 2 months
Preparatory period (continued)
    • Strength Phase
      • Intensity and volume increase to moderate levels
    • Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season)
      • Volume is decreased to allow adequate recovery
  • Competition period:
    • May last a < week or several months for seasonal sports
    • High intensity, low volume, skill training sessions
    • May incorporate weekly training cycles (1-7 days)
      • Designed to ensure peak on days of competition
cross training
Cross Training
  • Training for a sport with substitutions of alternative activities (carryover value)
  • Useful in transition and preparatory periods
  • Variety to training regimen
  • Should be discontinued prior to preseason as it is not sport-specific
principles of conditioning and training


Overload and SAID principle

Consistency/ routine





Relaxation/ Minimize Stress


Principles of Conditioning and Training
warm up
  • Precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury and soreness
  • May enhance certain aspects of performance
  • Prepares body physiologically for physical work
  • Stimulates cardiorespiratory system, enhancing circulation and blood flow to muscles
  • Increases metabolic processes, core temperature, and muscle elasticity
  • Activities which bring a general warming to the body(break a sweat)
  • Not related to sport


  • Specific to sport
  • Stretching, jogging, running, throwing, catching

Should last 10-15 minutes resulting in effects that will last 45 minutes

cool down
  • Essential component of workout
  • Bring body back to resting state
  • 5-10 minutes in duration
  • Often ignored
  • Decreased muscle soreness following training if time used to stretch after workout
why is it important to have good flexibility
Why is it important to have good flexibility?
  • Ability to move a joint(s) smoothly through a full range of motion (ROM)
  • Decreased ROM results in:
    • Decreased performance capabilities
    • Uncoordinated/awkward movements
    • Predisposes athlete to injury
  • Good flexibility is essential for successful physical performance
  • Recommended by athletic trainers to prevent injury
factors that limit flexibility
Factors That Limit Flexibility
  • Bony structures
  • Tissue approximation
  • Excessive fat
  • Muscle and tendon lengths
  • Connective tissue
  • Scarring and contractures
  • Skin
range of motion rom
Range of Motion(ROM)
  • Active range of motion = dynamic flexibility
    • Ability to move a joint with little resistance
  • Passive range of motion = static flexibility
    • Motion of joint to end points without muscle contraction
  • Must be able to move through unrestricted range
  • Must have elasticity for additional stretch encountered during activity
agonist vs antagonist muscles
Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles
  • Joints are capable of multiple movements
  • Example:
    • Quadriceps will extend knee with contraction
    • Hamstrings will stretch during extension
    • Quads (muscle producing movement) referred to as agonist
    • Muscle undergoing stretch referred to as antagonist
    • Agonist and antagonist work together to produce smooth coordinated movements
stretching techniques
Stretching Techniques


  • Bouncing movement in which repetitive contractions of agonist work to stretch antagonist muscle
  • While effective in improving flexibility, caution should be exercised
  • Possible soreness (soccer example)
Static stretching
  • Passively stretching
  • 20-30 second hold = optimal
  • Go to point of pain and back off and hold for 30 seconds (3 to 4 times)
  • Controlled, less chance of injury
  • Not dynamic
  • Should precede ballistic stretching
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
  • Contract-relax
  • Hold-relax
  • Ten second push, ten second relax
  • Best technique to improve flexibility
  • Technique that involves combination of alternating contractions and relaxation of both agonist and antagonists
assessment of flexibility
Assessment of Flexibility
  • Various devices have been designed to accommodate joint sizes and complexities of movement
  • Goniometer most widely used device
  • Can also utilize the following tests:
    • Trunk hip flexion test
    • Trunk extension test
    • Shoulder extension test
is there a relationship between strength and flexibility
Is there a relationship between strength and flexibility?
  • Co-exist
  • Muscle bound = zero flexibility
  • Strength training will provide individual with ability to develop dynamic flexibility through full range of motion
  • Develop more powerful and coordinated movements
muscle strength power and endurance
Muscle Strength, Power, and Endurance

Strength: ability to generate force against resistance

Muscular endurance: repetitive muscular contractions (increase strength = increase endurance)

Power: the relationship between strength and time

muscle contractions
Muscle Contractions
  • Isometric contraction
    • No length change occurs during contraction
  • Isotonic contraction
    • Concentric- shortening of muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome more resistance
    • Eccentric - lengthening of muscle with contraction because load is greater than force being produced
    • Both are considered dynamic movements
factors that determine levels of muscular strength
Factors that Determine Levels of Muscular Strength
  • Size of muscle:
    • Function of diameter and of muscle fibers
    • Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy
  • Number of muscle fibers
  • Neuromuscular efficiency
    • Initial gains are due to increased efficiency
      • More effectively engage specific motor units
  • Biomechanical factors
    • Bones and muscles = Levers and pulleys
Fast-Twitch vs. Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers
  • Motor units with distinct metabolic and contractile capability

Individual make-up

    • Muscles contain both types of fibers
    • Muscle functioning impacts ratios (postural vs. powerful movement)
    • Genetically determined
  • Slow twitch (Type I):
    • Generally major constituent of postural muscles
  • Fast twitch (Type II)
    • High force in short amount of time
    • Produce powerful movements
Levels of Physical Activity
    • Will influence increase/decrease in muscle strength
    • Also impacts cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility and increases in body fat
  • Overtraining
    • Psychological and physiological breakdown
    • Signs
      • Apathy, loss of appetite, staleness, declines in performance, weight loss, inability to sleep
    • Prevent through appropriate training protocol, proper diet, and rest
what physiological changes occur to cause increased strength
What physiological changes occur to cause increased strength?
  • Multiple theories of muscle hypertrophy
  • Primary explanation of muscle hypertrophy:
    • Increase in protein myofilament number and size
  • Continued need for additional research
core stabilization training
Core Stabilization Training
  • Core refers to muscles that make up center of body
    • Low back, pelvis, hips, abdomen
  • Works to stabilize body enabling muscles of extremity to function optimally
  • Weak core is a fundamental problem of inefficient movements = injury
  • Program targets strength, neuromuscular control, power, and endurance of the core
  • Program will stress multiple planes and incorporate various resistance techniques
techniques of resistance training
Techniques of Resistance Training
  • Progressive resistance exercise
  • Overload principle must be applied
  • Must work muscle at increasingly higher intensities to enhance strength over time
  • If intensity of training does not increase, but training continues, muscle strength will be sustained
isometric exercise
Isometric Exercise
  • Contraction where muscle length remains unchanged
  • Muscle contraction that lasts 10 seconds and should be perform 5-10 times/daily
  • Pro: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab
  • Con: only works at one point in ROM, produces spiking of blood pressure due to Valsalva maneuver
Concentric and eccentric training should be incorporated for greatest strength improvement
  • Concentric phase of lift should last 1-2 seconds; eccentric phase 2-4 seconds
  • Variations exist between free and machine weight lifting
    • Motion restrictions, levels of muscular control required, amount of weight that can be lifted
    • Equipment design, varying resistances
progressive resistance exercise techniques
Progressive Resistance Exercise Techniques
  • Terminology associated with weight training
    • Repetitions
    • Repetition maximum
    • One repetition maximum
    • Set
    • Intensity
    • Recovery period
    • Frequency
When training should be able to perform 3 sets of 6-8 repetitions
  • Increases should occur in increments of 10%
  • 1 RM can be utilized to measure maximum amount of weight that can be lifted - must be very careful
  • Training of a particular muscle group should occur 3-4 times per week (not on successive days)
muscular endurance vs strength
Muscular Endurance vs. Strength
  • Training for endurance enhances strength and vice versa
  • Training for strength should involve lower repetitions at heavier weight
  • Training for endurance requires lower weight at 12-15 repetitions
open vs closed kinetic chain exercises
Open vs. Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises
  • Anatomical functional relationship for upper and lower extremities
  • OKC
    • When foot or hand are not in contact with the ground or supporting surface
  • CKC
    • Foot or hand are weight bearing
    • Widely used = more functional
isokinetic training
Isokinetic Training
  • Muscle contraction at a constant velocity
  • Maximal and constant resistance throughout the full range of motion
  • Maximal effort = Maximal strength gains
  • Rehab
  • Never widely used in strength training
  • Losing popularity in rehabilitation settings
circuit training
Circuit Training
  • Combination of exercise stations
  • 8 - 12 stations, 3 times through
  • Design for different training goals
    • Flexibility
    • Calisthenics
    • Aerobic exercise
plyometric exercise
Plyometric Exercise
  • Rapid stretch, eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forceful explosive movement
  • Rate of stretch vs. magnitude
  • Jumps, bounds, medicine ball throws
  • Very technical training - skills must be learned with appropriate technique
  • Often develop muscle soreness as a result of extensive eccentric loading
training for the female athlete
Training for the Female Athlete
  • Critical for female athlete
  • Significant hypertrophy is related to testosterone present within body
  • Remarkable gains are experienced initially due to enhanced nervous system and muscle interaction (efficiency-not muscle bulk)
  • Following initial gains, plateau occurs, with females
Males tend to continue to increase strength with training
  • Critical difference is the ratio of strength to body fat
    • Females have reduced strength to body weight ratio due to higher percentage of body fat
    • Ratio can be enhanced through weight training and decrease in body fat percentage/increased lean weight
cardiorespiratory endurance
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Perform whole body activities for extended period of time
  • Performance vs. fatigue vs. injury
  • Aerobic exercise
    • Low intensity exercise that can be sustained for a long period of time
  • Anaerobic exercise
    • Activity where intensity is so high that demand for oxygen is greater than body’s ability to deliver

four components

    • Heart
    • Lungs
    • Blood vessels
    • Blood
  • Improvements in endurance are the results of improvements in these 4 components
impact on heart
Impact on Heart
  • Main pumping mechanism
  • Increase exercise = increased oxygen requirement = increase heart pumping
  • Heart able to adapt through increases in heart rate and stroke volume which will enhance overall cardiac output
  • Oxygenation of blood
what determines how efficiently the body is using oxygen
What determines how efficiently the body is using oxygen?
  • Aerobic capacity = VO2max
  • More active = higher capacity
  • Average value = 45-60 ml O2/min/kg
  • Increases in intensity require higher levels of oxygen consumption
  • Inherit certain range of maximum aerobic capacity (genetics)
    • Dependent on activity levels
    • Also impacted by muscle fiber types
maximum aerobic capacity
Maximum Aerobic Capacity
  • Most accurate techniques must be performed in a laboratory setting
    • Treadmill, bicycle ergometer
    • Monitor heart rate and gas exchange at particular workload
  • Generally utilize heart rate to estimate percentage of maximum aerobic capacity
    • Indirect method
    • Heart rate and aerobic capacity have linear relationship
types of training for cardiorespiratory endurance
Types of Training for Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Continuous
    • Mode (type of exercise) - must be aerobic in nature
    • Frequency (at least 3 times/week)
    • Duration (at least 20 minutes)
    • Intensity (monitor intensity as % of heart rate or perceived exertion)
      • Training heart rate – target heart rate

Maximum HR = 220 - Age

      • Karvonen formula (60% HR Max)
        • Target HR=Resting HR+(.6 [Max HR – Resting HR)]
Interval training
    • Intermittent activities involving periods of intense work and active recovery
    • Must occur at 60-80% of maximal heart rate
    • Allows for higher intensity training at short intervals over an extended period of time
    • Most anaerobic sports require short burst which can be mimicked through interval training
Fartlek training
    • Cross-country running that originated in Sweden
    • Speed play
    • Similar to interval training in that activity occurs over a specific period of time but pace and speed are not specified
    • Consists of varied terrain which incorporates varying degrees of hills
    • Dynamic form of training
    • Must elevate heart rate to minimal levels to be effective
    • Popular form of training in off-season