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TRAUMATIC INJURIES IN AGRICULTURE. David L. Hard John R. Myers Susan G. Gerberich. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture. NCASH Report (1989). Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture. NCASH Report (1989) Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture.

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TRAUMATIC INJURIES IN AGRICULTURE


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    1. TRAUMATIC INJURIESIN AGRICULTURE David L. Hard John R. Myers Susan G. Gerberich

    2. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • NCASH Report (1989)

    3. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • NCASH Report (1989) • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming

    4. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • NCASH Report (1989) • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming • Traumatic death and injury due in large part to farm machinery—primarily tractors

    5. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • NCASH Report (1989) • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming • Traumatic death and injury due in large part to farm machinery—primarily tractors • Inadequate farm building design and livestock handling

    6. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • NCASH Report (1989) • Epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming • Traumatic death and injury due in large part to farm machinery—primarily tractors • Inadequate farm building design and livestock handling • Affect youth (<16) and elderly (65 and older)

    7. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC) • 1930’s to present

    8. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC) • 1930’s to present • Farm Safety Quarterly • Accident Facts • Injury Facts

    9. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC) • NIOSH--National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF)--1980

    10. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC) • NIOSH--National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF)--1980 • Census of work related deaths • 16 years of age or older • External cause of death

    11. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC) • NIOSH--NTOF • BLS--Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI)--1992

    12. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC) • NIOSH--NTOF • BLS--Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI)--1992 • Multiple records used to determine work-relatedness • Details often better than from death certificates • No age limit for inclusion

    13. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s • National survey of agriculture production injuries • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year

    14. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s • National survey of agriculture production injuries • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year • Standardized instrument—utilized volunteers

    15. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s • National survey of agriculture production injuries • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year • Standardized instrument—utilized volunteers • 1982—31 states • 1985—35 states

    16. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • National Safety Council (NSC)--1970’s-1980’s • National survey of agriculture production injuries • 3 personal interviews with farm operator—1 year • Standardized instrument—utilized volunteers • 1982—31 states • 1985—35 states • Not sustainable

    17. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NSC--1970’s-1980’s • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)--1987

    18. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NSC--1970’s-1980’s • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)--1987 • Both fatal and non-fatal • Telephone interview-based survey of farm operators • 1 year recall

    19. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NSC--1970’s-1980’s • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS)--1987 • Both fatal and non-fatal • Telephone interview-based survey of farm operators • 1 year recall • Used USDA/NASS list frame of farms • Comparison made with medical records at Mayo • Results were found to be realistic and effective

    20. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NSC--1970’s-1980’s • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS) • Regional Rural Injury Study (RRIS-I)--1990 • Both fatal and nonfatal • 5 states (MN, NE, ND, SD, WI)

    21. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NSC--1970’s-1980’s • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS) • Regional Rural Injury Study (RRIS-I)--1990 • Both fatal and nonfatal • 5 states (MN, NE, ND, SD, WI) • Sampling frame USDA/NASS • Recall period reduced to 6 months

    22. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NSC--1970’s-1980’s • Olmsted Agricultural Trauma Survey (OATS) • Regional Rural Injury Study-I (RRIS-I) • Regional Rural Injury Study-II (RRIS-II)--1998 • Similar methodology • 4,000 farm households; 17,000 persons; 8,600 <20

    23. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NIOSH Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF)--1993-1995 • National survey of non-fatal production ag injuries • Random sample of farms • Sampling frame USDA/NASS • Recall period of 1 year

    24. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NIOSH Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF)--1993-1995 • National survey of non-fatal production ag injuries • Random sample of farms • Sampling frame USDA/NASS • Recall period of 1 year • TISF conducted over 3 years; allowed national estimates and regional/state estimates • Total of 36,270 farms participated

    25. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NIOSH Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative--1997 • Develop ag. injury surveillance systems for youth living, working or visiting farms in U.S.

    26. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • History of Non-fatal Occupational Injury • NIOSH Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative--1997 • Develop ag. injury surveillance systems for youth living, working or visiting farms in U.S. • 3 separate surveys conducted: -1999 farm operator survey (USDA/NASS) -1999 NAWS (USDOL) -Case series follow-back (CPSC/NEISS)

    27. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • Current Status of Agricultural Injuries • Both national and regional data used • Limited to production agriculture

    28. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • Current Status of Agricultural Injuries • CFOI (1992-1998)

    29. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    30. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    31. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    32. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture Production Agriculture Occupational Deaths and Average Annual Fatality Rate, per 100,000 Workers, 1992-1998, CFOI

    33. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    34. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    35. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture Production Agriculture Deaths and Average Annual Fatality Rates per 100,000 Workers by Age Group, 1992-1998, CFOI

    36. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    37. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    38. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    39. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    40. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture

    41. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Persons incurring injuries on farms • Farm operator or family member (61%) • Hired labor (29%) • Partners or their family members (6%)

    42. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Persons incurring injuries on farms • Farm operator or family member (61%) • Hired labor (29%) • Partners or their family members (6%) • Majority of injuries temporary (95%)

    43. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Persons incurring injuries on farms • Farm operator or family member (61%) • Hired labor (29%) • Partners or their family members (6%) • Majority of injuries temporary (95%) • Most sought medical attention (80%)

    44. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Most injuries in months • August, July, June, and November

    45. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Most injuries in months • August, July, June, and November • Type of work activity at time of injury • Livestock handling (29%) • Farm maintenance (17%) • Field work (16%)

    46. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Leading sources of injury • Machinery & Livestock (19% each) • Working surfaces and non-powered hand tools (8% each)

    47. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • TISF--Leading sources of injury • Machinery & Livestock (19% each) • Working surfaces and non-powered hand tools (8% each) • Most common type of injury events • Struck by or against an object (15%) • Fall from elevation (13%) • Contact with sharp object (11%)

    48. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • Most common body part injured • Leg, knee or hip (17%) • Back (15%) • Finger (12%)

    49. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • Most common body part injured • Leg, knee or hip (17%) • Back (15%) • Finger (12%) • TISF--Leading nature of injuries were • Sprain or strain (26%) • Fractures (18%) • Cuts (17%)

    50. Traumatic Injuries in Agriculture • RRIS-I • 3,939 households; 13,144 persons