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Anjar : People and Land. Nanor Momjian, Jihan Hashisho , Moustapha Itani. Methodology. Literature Survey Field visits Analysis of SLA outcome Problem Tree Analysis. PROFILE. Anjar ( Haoush Mousa )  Mohafazat of Biqaa 58 Km from Beirut Average elevation of 950masl

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anjar people and land

Anjar: People and Land

Nanor Momjian, JihanHashisho, MoustaphaItani

methodology
Methodology
  • Literature
  • Survey
  • Field visits
  • Analysis of SLA outcome
  • Problem Tree Analysis
profile
PROFILE
  • Anjar (HaoushMousa) Mohafazatof Biqaa
  • 58 Km from Beirut
  • Average elevation of 950masl
  • The historic “city” of Anjar built during the Reign of Omayyad.
slide4

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

slide5

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

physical capital
Physical Capital
  • ResidentialArea: six neighborhoods (after MousaDagh)
  • Cultivated Lands:Bothcultivated lands and orchards of Anjar.
    • Water rich:receive naturally flowing water through canals designed to channel the water from the springs of Anjar and Chamsine
    • Water poor:at a higher elevation, no natural flow, ther wells are used.
  • Each Anjarian was given
    • 7000 m2 water-rich”
    • 4000m2 “water poor”
    • 400 m2 of lands
  • This distribution was given with a contract that forbids the Armenians to sell their lands before five years.
physical capital2
Physical Capital
  • Ruins: The historic “city” of Anjar
  • Transportation and Communication: village is not isolated because of pavement problems or other road issues
  • Energy: few hours of electricity per day
  • Advances in agriculture:technology, new pesticides, organic agriculture.
physical capital4
Physical Capital

Ommayad Ruins

Water Rich Lands

Residential Area

Water Poor Lands

slide11

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

financial capital
Financial Capital

Low-interest loans from banks, to recover from one year’s loss.

No subsidy from the government and if 10-20% of the loss

Organizations for Anjarians abroad (US, France) for funds of projects

Very few of the migrants provide financial inflow to their families

slide13

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

natural capital
Natural Capital
  • Water resources:Anjar spring and Chamsinespring
    • Anjar’s water quality and quantity
    • During drought seasons, the committees (2008-2009)
  • Biodiversity and wildlife:
    • Birds have decreased due to chemicals and hunting, and maybe due to climate change
    • Aquaculture
slide16

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

human capital
Human Capital
  • Local knowledge of the older generations
  • New changed  new type of diseases and pests  education of the new generation
  • Two major migration events
  • Population: Current estimates: 2500-3000  voting records are 7000
  • Health: 70 or 80 year old men still work in the field, get help from women labors from nomadic tribes or Syrians.
  • Some of the new generation Anjarians are involved in part time jobs along the agriculture work.
  • New generation with full time non-agriculture jobs, help their parents or neighbors during harvesting or pesticide spraying time.
  • Role of Women: help in the field and prepare provisions
slide19

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

slide21

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

policies and institutions
Policies and Institutions:
  • Local Policies:
    • The municipality in collaborationwith ARF, and other sub-committees, with the assistance of the churches govern most aspects of the village.
    • Many of the internal problemsare solved through them, without the need to allow national governmental interference into the affairs.
    • unwritten laws, agreements, norms, traditions, the system is quiet successful so far
  • National Policies:
    • Anjar’s municipality is part of a larger committee that includes most the Biqaa villages.
  • Regional Policies:
    • Lebanon has signed to the Arab free trade agreement
slide23

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

livelihood outcomes
Livelihood Outcomes
  • More income
  • Increased well-being
  • Reduced vulnerability
  • Food-security
  • Passion to their land and agriculture
slide25

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

vulnerability context
Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Seasons

  • Some pests which become a seasonal problem, can cause a financial shock, however, it can also become a trend caused by climatic change.
  • A couple of years ago, only little snowfall caused large numbers of mice to breed and destroy the roots of the crops, hence financial loss.
  • Some changes are becoming a trend they need to learn how to cope with
  • The market demand, the market prices, and the seasonal agricultural products of neighboring villages

Trends

slide27

Livelihood Capital Assets

Human

Natural

Social

Physical

Financial

SLA

Livelihood Outcomes

+ Sustainable use of NR base

+ Income

+ Well-being

- Vulnerability

+ Food security

  • Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes)
  • Structures
    • Government
    • Private Sector
  • Processes
    • Laws
    • Policies
    • Culture
    • Institutions

Livelihood Strategies

Vulnerability Context

Shocks

Trends

Seasons

livelihood strategies
Livelihood strategies
  • Extensification:
    • Villagers that do not have lands large enough rentmore land from other villagers.
  • Diversification
    • They have introduced many varieties of the same fruit
    • Introduced the citrus type of fruits and some exotic types
    • Vegetables, grow faster and hence provide a “Fast track” income.
livelihood strategies2
Livelihood strategies
  • Agriculture as a part time job. This allows them to be less vulnerable to seasonal variation of agricultural income.
  • The Attachment of the Land
problem tree analysis
Problem Tree Analysis

Decline Of TheHuman Capital

  • Shift to other industries
  • Away from the agriculture (traditions)
    • Away from attachment
  • Loss of the uniqueness of Anjar
  • Loss of information sources
  • The village getting “older”
  • No market for the products
    • Competition with imported products
  • Risky industry
    • Seasonal changes
    • Pests and other diseases
  • Not a sufficient source of income
  • No governmental subsidy
  • Climatic changes
recommendations
Recommendations
  • What is being done
    • The municipality currently has a project to renovate the ruins, and try to provide more opportunities for the villagers from the tourism sector.
    • The municipality has also other projects to support ecotourism; however, an advanced system and plan are not set yet.
  • The mayor is positive that such a project would provide opportunities for young generation Anjarians.
  • Encourage them to stay, even if not in the agriculture sector.
  • The enthusiasm of Anjarians and their work in a professional and organized manner is very important, nevertheless, this paper suggests other solutions to support the agriculture sector.
recommendations cnt d
Recommendations (Cnt’d)
  • What is proposed to be done
  • It is necessary to decrease the cost of the Lebanese products, or increase the value of the products.
  • A well organized and centralized body for the Biqaa villages to distributea specific product to specific village considering
    • The financial revenue
    • The suitability of that product in that location.
  • Increasing the services in Anjar, Good schools and universities in the adjacency of the village.
  • Scholarships can be granted only in specific majors with condition of returning to “homeland”.
  • Encouraging training in educational programs in aquaculture, to learn aquaculture practices in real life.
recommendations cnt d1
Recommendations (Cnt’d)
  • What is proposed to be done
  • Trainings in villages, for the anjarian to be exposed to modern agricultural techniques.
  • Voluntary programs should be encouraged, through which the volunteer would learn about Anjar, while the Anjarian would have the opportunity to sell or market some local goods.
  • Labeling specific local products.
  • Agricultural industries is a very practical solution for Anjar; not to sell the raw products  insure a better income.
  • Ecotourism
    • Labels of the types of indigenous birds, plants and other products
    • Handpicking fruits or vegetables; hence, the farmer would save on the labor cost, and the products will be sold as a retail level