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Biotechnology. DNA Technology. What is Biotech. Biobyte – what is biotech. Restriction enzymes. Bacteria fight invading viruses with Restriction Enzymes. Degrade phage DNA by cleaving (cutting) it into fragments. .

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DNA Technology

what is biotech
What is Biotech

Biobyte – what is biotech

restriction enzymes
Restriction enzymes

Bacteria fight invading viruses with Restriction Enzymes.

Degrade phage DNA by cleaving (cutting) it into fragments.


Why doesn’t a restriction enzyme cut the DNA of the bacterial cell that makes it?

Methylation protects the bacteria’s own DNA from being cleaved.


For example, the enzyme EcoRI cuts DNA only where it encounters the following paired sequence in the DNA double helix:

you try it
You try it!


(video clip – human physiology restriction enzymes)

gel electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis

When DNA is treated with restriction enzymes, the DNA is cut into fragments of various sizes.

These fragments can be separated in a gel on the bases on their electric charge and size.

dna fingerprinting
DNA fingerprinting
  • DNA-based technique for identifying individuals.
  • Uses restriction analysis and electrophoresis.
dna fingerprinting1
DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting methods require at least

1 µg of DNA, or the DNA content of about 100,000 human cells.

polymerase chain reaction pcr
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Can multiply (“amplify”) the DNA of interest from even a single cell, producing in a few hours the necessary

1 µg for restriction digestion and electrophoresis.


1) Double-stranded fragments of DNA are separated into single strands by heating (denatured).


2) ADD:

a) A short primer

b) along with the Bases (A,C,T,G)

c) DNA polymerase to catalyze the production of complementary new strands. (video polymerase chain reaction animated)

dna barcode1

Identify each species with a “DNA barcode”

He chose is the cytochromeoxidase gene.

Mutates readily, there should be many differences between species.

Present in most cells

Reasonable in size (650-750 base pairs)

why dna barcode
Why DNA barcode?

advance biological research on evolution

to track species diversity

help identify new species

detect undesirable microbes or bioterrorism agents