Biotechnology. DNA Technology. What is Biotech. Biobyte – what is biotech. Restriction enzymes. Bacteria fight invading viruses with Restriction Enzymes. Degrade phage DNA by cleaving (cutting) it into fragments. .
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Biobyte – what is biotech
Bacteria fight invading viruses with Restriction Enzymes.
Degrade phage DNA by cleaving (cutting) it into fragments.
Why doesn’t a restriction enzyme cut the DNA of the bacterial cell that makes it?
Methylation protects the bacteria’s own DNA from being cleaved.
For example, the enzyme EcoRI cuts DNA only where it encounters the following paired sequence in the DNA double helix:
(video clip – human physiology restriction enzymes)
When DNA is treated with restriction enzymes, the DNA is cut into fragments of various sizes.
These fragments can be separated in a gel on the bases on their electric charge and size.
DNA fingerprinting methods require at least
1 µg of DNA, or the DNA content of about 100,000 human cells.
Can multiply (“amplify”) the DNA of interest from even a single cell, producing in a few hours the necessary
1 µg for restriction digestion and electrophoresis.
1) Double-stranded fragments of DNA are separated into single strands by heating (denatured).
a) A short primer
b) along with the Bases (A,C,T,G)
c) DNA polymerase to catalyze the production of complementary new strands. (video polymerase chain reaction animated)
Identify each species with a “DNA barcode”
He chose is the cytochromeoxidase gene.
Mutates readily, there should be many differences between species.
Present in most cells
Reasonable in size (650-750 base pairs)
advance biological research on evolution
to track species diversity
help identify new species
detect undesirable microbes or bioterrorism agents