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Volcanism in the Solar System Part 1: Inner Solar System

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  1. Volcanism in the Solar SystemPart 1: Inner Solar System Justin Filiberto Lunar and Planetary Institute Modified for Rockin’ 2010 by Carla Burns

  2. Plan of Talk • Earth - review • Inner Solar System • Mercury • Venus • Moon • Mars • Outer Solar System • Io • Enceladus • Titan • Triton • Summarize Volcanoes in the Solar System

  3. Earth’s Shield Volcanoes

  4. Earth’s Composite/Stratovolcanos

  5. Earth’s Volcanoes • Cinder Cone • Caldera Complex • Lava Flows • Tuff Ring • And many more…

  6. Mercury Volcanoes Seen by Messenger Spacecraft more to come…

  7. Mercury

  8. Venus Surface Landers: Venera & VEGA

  9. Sapas Mons • 400 km across, 1.5 km tall • Slope ~ 0.5° • Very long flows • What type of Volcano?

  10. JPL Press Image 20x Vertical Exaggeration Unexaggerated … What type of Volcano? Maat Mons

  11. Single Flows, Steep sides Height 1/2 - 1 km. What kind of volcano? What kind of lava? Pancake Domes

  12. Rhyolite? Or merely cold, crystal-rich basalt? What kind of volcano? What kind of lava? Pancake Domes

  13. ? • Low cones in flat lava plains • A few km diam. (5 km for inset) • What type of lava? • What kind of volcano?

  14. Moon • 1/3 diam of Earth • 1/6 gravity • Dark, low, mare plains.

  15. Mare Plains

  16. Channels

  17. Domes • Gruithuisen domes • 20 km across, 1.2 km tall. Avg ~7° slope; steepest ~20°. • Are these volcanic? • If so, what are they most like on Earth?

  18. Mars Mars Earth • From Sun (AU) 1.5 1.0 • Mean radius (km) 3386 6371 • Mass (1024kg) 0.642 5.98 • Surface T (K) 227 295 • Gravity (m s-2) 3.7 9.8

  19. Olympus Mons • 640 x 840 km across • 21 km tall • Avg slope 5° • What kind of volcano? • What kind of lava?

  20. Lava Flows on O.M. 1 <-- - - - - 3 km - - - - -->

  21. Tharsis Tholus • 150 km across • 8 km tall • What kind of volcano? • What kind of lava?

  22. On Syrtis Major, a Shield Volcano • Small Hill • Steep Slope, ~30° • Surrounded by thin lava flows • What is it?

  23. On Syrtis Major, a Shield Volcano • Broken Cinder Cone?

  24. Outer Solar System • Only “rocky” volcanic body: Io • Other types of eruptions • Icy volcanoes • Geysers • ?

  25. Io • Moon of Jupiter • Mean radius (km) 1821 (0.286XEarth) • Mass (1022kg) 8.93 (0.015XEarth) • Surface T (K) 130 • Gravity (m s-2) 1.8 (0.2XEarth) • Most volcanically active body in the solar system.

  26. Evidence for Volcanism • Surface Changes • Gas Plumes

  27. Loki Patera… • Active Lava Lake?

  28. Ra Patera • Diameter-450 km • Height <1km • Area of Lava- 250,000km2 • What type of volcano? • Lava type?

  29. Ra Patera

  30. Pele • Pele eruption lava >1350°C • Hawaiian lavas ~1000°C • Lava type? • Volcano?

  31. Enceladus • Moon of Saturn • Mean radius (km) 251 (0.04XEarth) • Mass (1020kg) 1.1 (1.8x10-5XEarth) • Surface T (K) 75 • Gravity (m s-2) 0.1 (0.01XEarth) • Icy Surface “Tiger Stripe” Ridges

  32. Enceladus Erupts

  33. Titan • Moon of Saturn • Mean radius (km) 2576 (0.4XEarth) • Mass (1023kg) 1.35 (0.023XEarth) • Surface T (K) 94 • Gravity (m s-2) 1.4 • Largest moon of Saturn • Only object with stable liquid on the surface (other than the Earth)

  34. Icy Volcano?

  35. Icy Volcano?

  36. Triton • Moon of Neptune • Mean radius (km) 1353 (0.2XEarth) • Mass (1022kg) 2.1 (0.0036XEarth) • Surface T (K) 38 • Gravity (m s-2) 0.78 • Surface is frozen nitrogen and water

  37. Triton Cryovolcanism? • Bluish streaks – geysers of nitrogen?

  38. Outer Planet Summary • Possible old volcanoes on Ganymede, and Europa similar to Enceladus? • Possible old volcanoes on Dione and Tethys? • Possible volcanoes on Pluto? • More data coming from New Horizons may answer some of these questions…

  39. Some questions to ponder • What types of volcanoes are common to the Earth only? Why? • What types of volcanoes are common in the inner solar system but not the outer? Why? • What does this suggest about the cooling histories of the inner planets? Outer planets?

  40. Some questions to ponder • From the volcanoes we have seen which ones would we expect on which planets? • What do they suggest about other planets? • Since most of us do not live near a volcano, how can students connect volcanoes on the Earth and other planets?