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DO NOW. Take a diagram from the front of the room. Fill in the blanks. Preview p. 26. Explain the difference between top-down and bottom-up processing. Provide two examples of top-down processing in the real world.

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do now
DO NOW
  • Take a diagram from the front of the room.
  • Fill in the blanks.
preview p 26
Preview p.26
  • Explain the difference between top-down and bottom-up processing.
  • Provide two examples of top-down processing in the real world.
  • If you had to give up a sense, which one would it be? (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell)
slide3
Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosn'tmttaer in wahtoredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olnyiprmoatnttihng is taht the frist and lsatltteer be at the rghitpclae. The rset can be a toatlmses and you can sitllraed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamnmniddeos not raederveylteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
sensation

Sensation

pp.209 -222

NB p.27

slide5
Objective 7: What are the different levels of processing that occur as visual information travels to brain?
  • 6 million cones and 120 million rods relay information via bipolar and ganglion cells
  • Impulses travel along optic nerve  thalamus  visual cortex of brain
  • Feature detectors respond to specific features of visual stimulus
  • Supercells provide instant analysis (movement, angles, postures, etc)
objective 8 what is parallel processing
Objective 8: What is parallel processing?
  • Parallel processing: how the brain processes multiple sources of information simultaneously
    • Color, depth, movement, and form
  • Victims of brain damage give us incredible insight into the workings of the brain’s visual cortex. Dr. Ramachandran <3
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuNDkcbq8PY
objective 9 how do young hemholtz and opponent process theories help us understand color vision
Objective 9: How do Young-Hemholtz and opponent-process theories help us understand color vision?
  • Young-Hemholtztrichromatic theory: there are three types of cones, each sensitive to a specific wavelength: red (long), green (medium), and blue (short)
objective 9 how do young hemholtz and opponent process theories help us understand color vision1
Objective 9: How do Young-Hemholtz and opponent-process theories help us understand color vision?
  • Opponent-process theory: color sensitive components of the eye are grouped in three pairs: red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white
objective 10 what is the importance of color constancy
Objective 10: What is the importance of color constancy?
  • Color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters wavelengths reflected by the object.
  • Our experience of color comes not just from the object, but from everything around it as well.
objective 11 how do we experience pressure waves as sound
Objective 11: How do we experience pressure waves as sound?
  • Our ears transform the vibrating air into nerve impulses, which our brain decodes as sounds.
    • Loudness (decibels)= amplitude
    • Pitch (Hertz) = frequency or wavelength
    • Prolonged exposure above 85 decibels produces hearing loss
slide16
Objective 12: What are the three regions of the ear? What series of events triggers electrical impulses sent to the brain?
slide19
Objective 13: What is the difference between place and frequency theory? How do these theories help us understand pitch perception?
  • Place theory: pitch depends on where vibrations stimulate the basilar membrane
    • High frequency triggers hairs cells on far end
    • Low frequency triggers hair cells on close end
  • Frequency-matching theory: vibrations of basilar membrane are determined by the frequency of vibrations
    • high frequency  large vibrations
    • Low frequency  small vibrations
objective 14 how do we pinpoint sounds
Objective 14: How do we pinpoint sounds?
  • The placement of our ears allows us to enjoy stereophonic (3-D) hearing
objective 15 what are the two types of hearing loss
Objective 15: What are the two types of hearing loss?

Conduction hearing loss

  • Occurs when eardrum is punctured or damage to ossicles

Sensorineural hearing loss

  • Occurs when hair cells located in the inner ear are damaged
  • Mostly permanent
  • Nerve deafness
objective 16 how do cochlear implants function
Objective 16: How do cochlear implants function?
  • Cochlear implant: helps convert sounds into electrical signals that could trigger auditory nerve to carry message to auditory cortex
  • Deaf culture
  • Helen Keller “found deafness to be a much greater handicap than blindness… Blindness cuts people off from things. Deafness cuts people off from people”
process p 26
Process p. 26
  • If you had been born deaf, do you think you would want a cochlear implant?
  • Does it surprise you that most lifelong Deaf adults do not desire implants for themselves or their children?