nikhef activities on co 2 cooling n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Nikhef Activities on CO 2 Cooling PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Nikhef Activities on CO 2 Cooling

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 11

Nikhef Activities on CO 2 Cooling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Picture: LHCb-VELO evaporator. Nikhef Activities on CO 2 Cooling. Bart Verlaat, Nikhef Introduction meeting with FOM director W. Van Saarloos. 1. CO 2 cooling @ Nikhef (1). Evaporative CO 2 cooling is very promising for detectors:

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

Nikhef Activities on CO 2 Cooling

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
nikhef activities on co 2 cooling

Picture: LHCb-VELO evaporator

Nikhef Activities on CO2 Cooling

Bart Verlaat, Nikhef

Introduction meeting with FOM director W. Van Saarloos


co 2 cooling @ nikhef 1
CO2 cooling @ Nikhef (1)

Evaporative CO2 cooling is very promising for detectors:

Need small tubing (5-10x lower mass than conventional cooling systems)

Excellent heat transfer properties (5-10x higher than conventional systems)

Due to high system pressure more design freedom (pressure losses not significant)

CO2 is very safe and clean to work with.

Since 10 years Nikhef is developing CO2 cooling systems. 2 have been build: AMS-TTCS and LHCb-VTCS.

CO2 cooling becomes the standard for the Atlas and CMS inner detector upgrade.

Other applications are interested

co 2 cooling @ nikhef 2
CO2 cooling @ Nikhef (2)

Nikhef has developed a new cooling principle called 2PACL. (2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop)

The 2PACL concept is a mix of technologies from different “kitchens” (Space, refrigeration, central heating and fire fighting)

CO2 fire extinguisher

Central heating system

Satellite thermal control

Refrigeration system

co 2 systems in hep
CO2 systems in HEP
  • 2 CO2 cooling systems have been developed for HEP detectors so far.
    • AMS-TTCS (Tracker Thermal Control System)
      • Q= 150 watt
      • T=+15ºC to -20ºC
    • LHCb-VTCS (Velo Thermal Control System)
      • Q=1500 Watt
      • T= +8ºC to -30ºC
  • Both systems are based on the 2PACL principle invented at Nikhef

From central heating to 2PACL cooling


  • What we actually do:
  • Replace the burner heat by the detector heat.
  • Place all the hardware in the “heated room” away from the detector
  • Place the radiator in a refrigerator
  • Replace water by CO2 to boil at sub-zero temperatures
  • Introduce a heat exchanger between the supply and return line, to make the CO2 boiling.
  • Replace the expansion vessel by a more sophisticated accumulator from satellite cooling systems.
  • Varying the pressure in the accumulator and let the CO2 boil at any temperature you want.

Central heating system

Result: 2PACL is an easy to control cooling principle which is accurate, low mass and passive in the detector

2PACL Cooling system



The AMS-Tracker Thermal Control System (AMS-TTCS)

Component box on satellites exterior

Evaporator tube

Evaporator section


Heat exchanger


TTCS Space radiator



The LHCb-Velo Thermal Control System



Velo Module with cooling block

CO2 rack

The VTCS cooling plant



The cooling tube temperature is:

  • Easy to control
  • Very stable
  • Independent of primary cooler temperature

Accumulator temperature =

Cooling tube temperature

Temperature of the chiller





Temperature of space radiator

Temperature (ºC)


1 orbit (~1.5h)


co 2 developments for future hep experiments
CO2 developments for future HEP experiments

The Dutch C1O2 flu is becoming pandemic;

The whole world is getting infected………….

Blow system in SLAC

2PACL system in Nikhef

Compressor plant in CERN-Cryolab

Blow-system in IPN-Lyon

Blow system in CERN-DT

2PACL system in RWTH-Aachen



Blow-system in Karlsruhe

co 2 2pacl lab cooler
CO2 2PACL Lab Cooler

2PACL with PLC

Test box with experiment

  • Supplies:
  • Massflow
  • Enthalpy
  • Pressure
  • Supplies:
  • Cold


  • Supplies:
  • Power
  • Supplies:
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Voltage
  • Demand for:
  • Mass flow
  • Enthalpy
  • Pressure

Power supply

  • Demand for:
  • Temperature
  • Demand for:
  • Power
  • Supplies data:
  • HTC
  • Pressure drop
  • CHF
  • Dry out

PC with PVSS to control the cooler and experiment


  • CO2 cooling works very well in AMS and LHCb.
  • It has a promising future to become a HEP detector default.

Auke-Pieter’s Mantra adopted in CMS