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POLYMERS. POLYMERS INTRODUCTION & CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS ADDITION & CONDENSATION – POLYMERIZATION. What are polymers, monomers and polymerizations?. Polymers are macromolecules built up by the linking together of large numbers of much smaller molecules.

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polymers

POLYMERS

POLYMERS

INTRODUCTION & CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS

ADDITION & CONDENSATION – POLYMERIZATION

Introduction to Polymers

what are polymers monomers and polymerizations
What are polymers, monomers and polymerizations?

Polymers are macromolecules built up by the linking together of large numbers of much smaller molecules.

Polymerization : The process of linking the repeating units (monomers) is termed as polymerization

Introduction to Polymers

what are polymers monomers and polymerizations1
What are polymers, monomers and polymerizations?

Thesmall molecules which combine with each other to form polymer molecules are termed monomers.

Introduction to Polymers

building polyethylene

Ethylene

Polyethylene

Building Polyethylene

Introduction to Polymers

type of polymerization
Type of Polymerization
  • Monomers undergo polymerizaton by two types. They are:
  • Addition
    • Or
  • Condensation

Introduction to Polymers

the addition condensation system
The addition-condensation system

Addition polymers are those formed from monomers without the loss of a small molecule.

What are addition polymers?

Y

Y

Introduction to Polymers

slide8

Polymer StructureThe addition-condensation system

Condensation polymers

Polymers whose repeating units are joined together by functional units such as an ester (-OCO-), amide (-NHCO-), urethane (-OCONH-), sulfide (-SO2-) and other linkages.

-R-Z-R-Z-R-Z-R-Z-R-Z-

R is aliphatic or aromatic grouping and Z is functional unit.

Introduction to Polymers

slide9

Polymer StructureThe addition-condensation system

The major addition polymers are those formed by polymerization of monomers containing carbon-carbon double bond; such monomers are called vinyl monomers or substituted ethylenes.

Introduction to Polymers

addition polmerization
Addition polmerization
  • Self addition of several bifunctional monomers to each ohter takes place by chain reaction without the elimination of any simple molecules.
    • GENERAL REACTION:

n [CH2=CH]  [-CH2-CH-]n

| |

Y Y

Where Y=H,Ethylene, CH3,Propylene, Cl, Vinyl Chloride,

C6H5, Sterene, CN , Acrylonitrile

Introduction to Polymers

condensation polymerization including polyesters
Condensation polymerization(Including Polyesters)
  • Self addition of several bifunctional monomer to each other takes place accompanying elimination of simple molecues like H2O,NH3 & HCL
  • General reaction :

n[HOOC-X-COOH] + n[HO-Y-OH]

HO-[….OC-X-COO-Y-O]n-H + (2n-1)H20

Introduction to Polymers

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E.g..

  • Terylene is obtained by condensing terpthalic acid

[HOOC-C6H4-COOH]with

ethylene glycol [HO-C2H4-OH]

  • Nylon is made by the condensation of adipic acid

[HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH] with

hexamethylenediamine[NH2-(CH2)6-NH2]

Introduction to Polymers