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Polymers. Polymers . C.X.C objectives. Students should be able to : Define polymers Distinguish between addition and condensation as reactions in the formation of polymers Name examples of polymers formed by: ( i ) addition reactions (ii)condensation reactions

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c x c objectives
C.X.C objectives
  • Students should be able to :
  • Define polymers
  • Distinguish between addition and condensation as reactions in the formation of polymers
  • Name examples of polymers formed by:

(i) addition reactions

(ii)condensation reactions

  • Draw diagrams to represent the formulae of monomers
  • State at least one use of each of the following types of polymers : (i) polyalkene

(ii) polyamide

(iii) polyester

(iv) polysaccharide

  • Show how the monomers are linked in the structure of a polymer
  • Demonstrate the differences in properties between a monomer and the polymer it forms.
polymers1
Polymers
  • Obj 1. Students should be able to define polymers :
  • What is a polymer ?
  • Polymers are macromolecules formed by linking together thousands of small molecules called monomers, usually in chains. Polymers are formed by polymerisation.
  • Some polymers occur naturally whereas some are man-made (synthetic). Synthetic polymers are referred to as Plastics but will be further discussed later in this module.
polymerisation
Polymerisation
  • Obj. 2. Distinguish between addition and condensation as reactions in the formation of polymers.
  • Polymerisation is the process whereby a polymer is formed from monomers. This can happen in two ways.

Addition Polymerisation

Condensation Polymerisation

Occurs when monomers join with the elimination of a small molecule e.g. water from between each unit.

Occurs when unsaturated monomers are linked to form a saturated polymer.

addition polymerisation
Addition Polymerisation
  • An addition polymer is constructed of one type of monomer. This is an unsaturated molecule (usually an alkene C C )
  • Addition polymers are referred to as Polyalkenes.
  • The polymer is formed when the double bond breaks and the units join together .
  • Only one type of product is formed.
naming polymers
Naming Polymers
  • To name a polymer, the prefix ‘Poly’ is placed before the name of the monomer.
  • For example: Polypropene

Polystyrene

Polyethene

addition polymers
Addition Polymers
  • Polyalkenes have properties of substances commonly named PLASTICS. Plastics are synthetic polymers.
condensation polymerisation
Condensation Polymerisation
  • Condensation polymerisation describes a process whereby the polymer is formed when monomer units join together with the elimination of a small molecule, usually BUT NOT ALWAYS water. (HCl or NH3 could be eliminated as well.)
  • In order for monomers to form condensation polymers, the monomer must have two active sites ( point at which the monomers join).
  • Two products are formed as a result of this type of polymerisation.
  • It is important to note that a condensation polymer can have monomers of one or two types.
condensation polymerisation1
Condensation Polymerisation
  • There are two types of condensation polymerisation.

Natural Condensation polymers e.g protein and starch

Synthetic or man-made condensation polymers e.g. nylon and terylene

types of linkage
Types of linkage
  • Condensation polymers can be divided into groups based on the type of linkage between the monomer units.
  • Polyamides – Amide Linkage
  • Polyesters- Ester Linkage C O

Polysaccarides- Saccaride Linkage

O

types of condensation polymers
Types of condensation polymers
  • Polyamides
  • Polyesters
  • Polysaccharides
polyamides
Polyamides
  • Protein is a natural polyamide. The monomers which make up proteins are amino acids.
polyamides cont d
Polyamides cont’d :
  • Two amino acids join together to form a dipeptide. A ‘H’ from the amine ( NH2) group of one of the amino acids and an ‘OH’ from the other amino acid condense to form water and join the two monomers.
polyamides cont d1
Polyamides cont’d:
  • Nylon is an example of a synthetic polymer. Nylon is special in that it is formed by two different monomers, a diacid and a diamine.
polyesters
Polyesters
  • Polyesters are synthetic fibres, such as terylene, made as imitations of natural materials like wool and cotton.
  • Polyester structure consist of many monomers joined together by ester bonds.
  • The monomers in polyester are : diacid + dialcohol
polysaccarides
Polysaccarides
  • Polysaccarides are natural polymers such as starch and cellulose. The monomers are monosaccaridese.g. fructose or glucose (simple reducing sugars)
  • Two glucose units join together by the elimination of water to produce a disaccaride (sucrose) and many glucose units join together to form the polysaccaride- starch.
  • Starch- [ O X O X O ]n
hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
  • Hydrolysis of Polymers-
  • The word ‘hydrolysis’ means to split up by the addition of water. Hydro- water, lysis-to break up/separate.
  • Polymers which undergo hydrolysis are broken up into their respective monomers when water is added.
hydrolysis1
Hydrolysis
  • Carbohydrates and Proteins can be hydrolysed in two ways.
  • 1) In the body during digestion by enzymes.
  • 2) In the lab, by boiling with dilute Hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid.
properties of monomers and polymers
Properties of Monomers and Polymers
  • Polymers tend to have totally different physical and chemical properties from their monomers.
videos
Videos
  • The Polymer Party –
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SgWgLioazSo