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Polymers. What Are Polymers?. Large molecule that consists of lots of small repeating subunits Subunits are called monomers Polymers are formed when monomers are linked together is a process called polymerization. Addition Polymers. Polymers are linked through addition reactions

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Presentation Transcript
what are polymers
What Are Polymers?
  • Large molecule that consists of lots of small repeating subunits
  • Subunits are called monomers
  • Polymers are formed when monomers are linked together is a process called polymerization
addition polymers
Addition Polymers
  • Polymers are linked through addition reactions
  • Three stages in synthesis
    • Initiation
    • Propagation
    • Termination
polyethylene
Polyethylene
  • Polymer made from ethene monomers
polyethylene1
Polyethylene
  • Polymer made from ethene monomers
  • Short form notation:
polypropene
Polypropene
  • Made from propene monomers
polypropene1
Polypropene
  • Made from propene monomers
  • Used in rope and carpets
  • Short form notation:
polyvinyl chloride pvc
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  • Made with chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomers
polyvinyl chloride pvc1
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  • Made with chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomers
  • Used in electrical wire insulation, plastic piping, coating on fabrics
  • Short form notation:
polystyrene1
Polystyrene
  • Made from (styrene) phenylethene
  • Very commonly used
substituted groups
Substituted Groups
  • Change the properties of polymer
  • Teflon monomer: tetrafluroethane
  • Plexiglass monomer: methyl propenoate
crosslinking
Crosslinking
  • Occurs when links can be formed in 2 directions
    • Diene monomers can form bridges between chains
  • Diene doesn’t have to be main monomer
  • Increases polymers’ strength
plastic properties
Plastic Properties
  • Substituted ethene (vinyl) monomers considered “plastics”
  • Saturated alkanes
    • Very stable
    • Unreactive
  • Flexible and mouldable solids or liquids
    • Weak van der Waals forces
  • Softened by heating
    • Disrupts forces
condensation polymers
Condensation Polymers
  • Monomer units are joined by condensation reactions
  • Monomer units must have functional groups at each end
polyesters
Polyesters
  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diol
polyesters1
Polyesters
  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diol
polyamides
Polyamides
  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diamine
polyamides1
Polyamides
  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diamine