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Tanzania A Brief Overview – Edith Tarimo The Tanzanian Education System - Edith Tarimo Cultures, Languages and the Role of Kiswahili -Damari Mchome Marangu Teachers’ College - Jestina Mbilinyi Closing – Edith Tarimo February 28, 2005
The Tanzanian Education System • A Pyramidal structure • Sequence – from “chekechea” to graduate school: • 2 7 4 2 3/4/5 • Highly centralized – controlled by the Ministry of Education • Universal Primary Education (UPE) – Law – 1975 • Highly competitive – entry to secondary, high school and university determined by national exams • Inspectorate & National Examinations Council operate relatively independently • School is a major socialization agent for children and youth
Education System contd. • 3”R”s (Kusoma, Kuandika & Kuhesabu) • Most children come to school already bilingual or even multilingual • 1 or 2 home languages or dialects of the same language • Kiswahili – mother tongue and national language • English – introduced in pre-school • Core Subjects: Kiswahili, Mathematics, English, Geography, History, Science & handcraft (stadi za kazi) • High need for culturally relevant books and materials • A long time debate on medium of instruction in secondary schools and university (Kiswahili versus English)
The Tanzanian People: Cultures • Over 123 different cultural groups • Living in different regions of the country • Grow most of their own food, keep animals for food • Build their own houses – wealthy people, and poor people – together • Engage in different economic activities
The Tanzanian People: Languages • Over 130 distinct languages • Each language with several dialects • Example: Kichaga: Kivunjo, Kikibosho, Kimachame, Kiuru, Kirombo, etc • Children grow up with two or more languages, start learning English in preschool • Kiswahili is the national language – everybody speaks Kiswahili
The Role of Kiswahili in Tanzania • Connects all the different linguistic and ethnic groups • Medium of instruction in all primary schools • Required subject in secondary schools • An academic field of study at the University of Dar es Salaam • Official language in business, law, etc
A Brief History of Marangu Teachers’ College • Location: MTC is in the north eastern part of Tanzania, in Kilimanjaro Region, about 38 kilometers from the town of Moshi. • MTC is one of the four oldest colleges in Tanzania (the other three being Morogoro, Mpwapwa and Butimba) • MTC Started in 1902 as a seminary at Kidia in Old Moshi (during the German era) • The medium of instruction was Kichaga, and later became Kiswahili
MTC Mission and Faculty • The mission of Marangu Teachers College is to prepare competent classroom teachers who know their subject matter, and who are aware of their own environment, the values of our country and the dynamics of rest of the world. • Each faculty has to be highly competent in several subject areas that are taught at primary level and/or secondary school • Faculty have to follow an established code of conduct for all Tanzanian teachers.
Marangu Teachers’ College Model Schools • Kindergarten • The name of the school is Marangu Nursery School • It is within the college compound • It is used for single lesson teaching practice • It is also used for Block Teaching Practice • Primary School • The name of the school is Marangu Practising School • From Standard One to Standard Seven (grade levels) • About 32 Teachers, and 800 pupils (students) • Used for single lesson teaching practice • Used for Block Teaching Practice
Model schools contd. • Secondary School • The name of the school is Darajani Practising Secondary School • It has 24 teachers and about 600 students • Main options are Commerce, Science and Art • Used for single lesson and block teaching practice • Cooperation with the college • Model schools help provide MTC students with practical experience at different points in their program. • There is therefore close cooperation between the schools and the college (meetings, curriculum planning & social activities)
Closing • Tanzania is a stable country – has had three presidents, elected by the Tanzanian people – two have retired • Gender sensitive – many women in high positions of power – ministers, members of parliament, equal salaries to men • Everybody values education and academic excellence - intrinsic motivation • Many Tanzanian professionals working in other countries including the US