Tanzania. Industrializing & Horticultural By: Kaitlin Brown, Amy Glenn, Lauren Schmidt, Taylor Morris, Ayeshinaye Holt, Jenna Silver and Sophie Larkin. Introduction. The official name is “United Republic of Tanzania”
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Tanzania Industrializing & Horticultural By: Kaitlin Brown, Amy Glenn, Lauren Schmidt, Taylor Morris, Ayeshinaye Holt, Jenna Silver and Sophie Larkin
Introduction • The official name is “United Republic of Tanzania” • There are roughly 120 ethnic communities in the country representing several of Africa’s main socio-linguistic groups. • Coastal and island Tanzania organized into city-states around 1,500 years ago.
Type of Society • The official capital of Tanzania is Dodoma • where Parliament and some government offices are located. • The main coastal city of Dar es Salaam served as the political capital of Tanzania after independence from Britain until 1996. • Today, Dar es Salaam is still the principal commercial city of Tanzania and a temporary home of most government institutions. • Located on the coast of the Indian Ocean, it is the major seaport for the country and its landlocked neighbors.
Type of Society Cont. • Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world, with much of its economy relying on agriculture. However, much aid has been given to the country in hopes of industrialization. Currently, the industrial sector in Tanzania is small, but growth of this is a huge goal for the country. • After Tanzania achieved independence from Britain, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964.
Type of Society Cont. • Tanzania is one of the oldest known inhabited areas in the world, with fossils of humans and pre-human hominids dating back over 2 million yrs. • Tanzania was at one time a hunter-gatherer community until the Bantus arrived around 2000 yrs ago. • Today, about 95% of Tanzanians belong to one of 130 Bantu tribes. • Nilotic pastoralists immigrated into Tanzania throughout the 18th century. • Tanzanians are one of the first to produce steel, dating back 2000 years ago. • The Eastern African Hayans are responsible for a type of high-heat furnace allowing for the forging of steel. • The region of present-day Tanzania was conquered by Germany in the late 1800s, but was designated as a British Mandate after British victory in WWI. This influence from the British resulted in modern Tanzania’s civil society.
Economy and Technology • Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world • GDP in 2010 was $23.3 billion • Had a 6.4% annual growth percentage • GDP per capita was $552 • Agriculture made up 26.6% of GDP
Economy and Technology Cont. • Agriculture still provides the most for Tanzanian economy and is its primary economic sector (accounts for most of its GDP) • This sector employs almost 4/5th of the population • This includes: • Coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, cloves, sisal, cashew nuts, maize, livestock, sugar cane, paddy wheat, and pyrethrum
Economy and Technology Cont. • This is also a downfall because the large dependency on agriculture renders the economy vulnerable due to adverse weather conditions. Also because of unfavorable prices in the international primary commodity markets
Economy and Technology Cont. • Industry and manufacturing only made up 22.6% of the GDP • -*textiles, agro-processing, light manufacturing, construction, steel, aluminum, paints, cement, cooking oil, *beer, *cigarettes, mineral water and soft drinks • *major ones
Economy and Technology Cont. • Mining diamonds and gold also contributes to the economy • Minerals led to growth from 1991-2000 because of the industrial production and substantial increase of minerals, especially gold • They also mine phosphates, iron ore, gold, nickel, salt, and a little bit of coal and tin. Oil refining occurs as well • Tanzania is trying to make tourism a bigger money maker
Population • The current population of Tanzania is about 30 million • The demographics of Tanzania are diverse, there are indigenous peoples along with Pakistani, Indian, Arab, and European subpopulations • Population density is the highest in urban centers, the foothill regions, and on the coast of Lake Malawi
Population Cont. • The official language of the Tanzanian populations is Swahili, which is a coastal Bantu language. The second official language is British. • The use of one common language has helped trade, political debate, nationalism, information dissemination, and conflict resolution • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCpnu-AivCQ • Video of two people speaking Swahili in Tanzania
Population Cont. • Men’s life expectancy is about 50 years while women’s life expectancy is about 53 years • The mortality rate for children under 5 is 11.8% • Mortality rate is considered high by world standards • This rate has declined over the years due to improved health care and better environmental sanitation
Population Cont. • The average growth rate is 2.9% • Tanzania has a young population; 44% of the population are under 15 years old while just 4% is above 65 years old, this implies that the growth rate will increase as the young population moves into their reproductive years • Fertility rate in Tanzania is about 5.7 children per woman, as of 2004. The rates are different depending on the woman’s education and whether or not she lives in an urban or rural area.
Population Cont. • Fertility for women I rural areas is recorded at 6.5 births per woman while fertility for women in urban areas is 3.5 births per woman. • Fertility rate for women with no education is 6.9, with primary education 5.6, and with secondary and higher education 3.2 • Fertility rates are high because marriage for women is essentially universal and many women marry young • Children are also highly valued as a source of domestic and agricultural labor and also as economic security for parents once they become elderly • Women have a low social and educational status so they don’t have as much right to their bodies.
Population Cont. • Rural-urban migration has steadily increased • Urban areas are continually getting denser and denser as people migrate out of rural areas. • This sudden surge in migration has caused stress on public services and social infrastructure. • Rapid population growth tends to slow growth in national output • Population growth affects public budgets for health, education, and human resource development sectors the most, and in negative ways.
Population Cont. • The maternal mortality rate has been and continues to be a problem in Tanzania and is increasing.
Ideologies • The population is heavily influenced by Christian and Muslim ideologies. • In Mainland Tanzania: • 40% of the population is Christian • 35% of the population is Muslim • 20% of the population follows indigenous religions • In Zanzibar (Archipelago of Tanzania) • Nearly 100% of the population is Muslim
Ideologies Cont. • Religious freedom has been one of the country’s biggest values • All religious holidays receive equal public recognition • Only a very small portion of the population (5% or less) is secular/non-religious
Ideologies Cont. • There is a strong feeling of national pride and cohesion in Tanzania • Swahili is spoken by the majority of the population and this has been a major factor in developing the country’s national identity • Nyerere, the nation’s first president, encouraged all Tanzanians to adopt Swahili as their national language in order to feel as if they are one people • No one ethnic group dominates the political or economic realms • There has been no war in the country for 20 years • Conflicts are resolved without violence – keeping the national identity intact
Ideologies Cont. • Nyerere developed the idea of “ujamaa” – “family/familyhood,” a system of mutual assistance for the Tanzanian economy • While Tanzanian Socialism failed, the effect the idea of “ujamaa” had on the population remained
Ideologies Cont. • Sub-national Identities • There are about 120 ethnic groups within Tanzania • Largest groups are: • Sukuma (over 3 million people) • Chagga, Haya, Nyamwezi (over 1 million people each) • However, because of their use of Swahili, they are still united as one people – even though they have their own tribal cultures and traditions
Polity and Conflict • United Republic of Tanzania is a Unitary Republic that consists of two nations that were once separate: Tanganyika and Zanzibar • They were merged in 1964, after a revolution • There is a direct popular election of a president and National Assembly every 5 years • The President appoints a Prime Minister to preside over the National Assembly
Polity and Conflict Cont. • There is one dominant party • The Chama Cha Mapinduzi • Other parties do exist but they are minor • Although there is opposition to the Chama Cha Mapinduzi, the nation does not have internal conflict between parties.
Social Stratification • Tanzania’s top social class is the traditional elite • Includes descendants of kings and paramount chiefs • Lost their traditional titles after independence • Modern elite • Individuals in the government • Successful businesspeople • Highly educated individuals • The poor • HIV-ADIS epidemic ad decrease in social services has made it so that the poor can no longer care for all of their children and relatives
Social Stratification Cont. • Beggars and street children • Becoming more and more prominent • Victims of police brutality • Markers of upper classes • Owning one of more cars • Expensive hairstyles • Western clothing • Large, Western houses with modern amenities • Command of English and/or other non-native languages • Frequent travel • Markers of the poorest classes • Severe malnourishment • Rags as clothes • Constantly living on the edge
Social Stratification Cont. • Market Economy • The market economy has encouraged individual success • It has encouraged proliferation of Western goods • It has increased systemic corruption • It has caused the gap between rich and poor to widen even more
Education • The Tanzanian educational system is comprised of four levels. • Pre-Primary • Lasts for two years (ages 4-6) • Run mostly by individuals and private institutions with a small amount of state involvement. • Pre-Primary institutions are mostly found in urban areas. • Primary/Basic • Last for seven years (ages 7-14) • The conditions of Primary schools vary. Some have received more funding than others either through charities or through issues within the government. • Run by the state, charitable institutions, as well as private individuals. • Most Tanzanians end their educational career once they’ve completed Primary school.
Education Cont. • Secondary • Split into ordinary and advanced secondary education. • It takes four years to graduate from ordinary secondary education. • It takes two years to graduate from advanced secondary education. • Run by the state, charitable institutions, as well as private individuals. • Tertiary • Tanzanian equivalent of college here. • There are only 4 state run universities and eight private universities in Tanzania. • It takes three years to graduate. • Around 19,000 people are enrolled in tertiary education in Tanzania.
Education Cont. • There have been vast improvements within the education system but it still has large flaws. • Bilingual policy is the educational policy the government is most proud of. • Students are required to learn Kiswahili and English. • Primary school fees were banished in 2005 and as a result the enrollment numbers of primary schools have doubled. • According to the government 97.3% of the primary-school-aged population is enrolled. • Students still have to buy for their uniforms and pay a fee to cover the cost of food and security, so some families are not able to afford to send their children to school.
Education Cont. • The educational system made great strides during the time period right before the recession as a result of foreign aid and donations, but as a result of the recession there is currently lack of funding. • Because there are more children enrolled in school, but more teachers have not been hired, classes have become very crowded. • In 2009 there were 63 students for every teacher, whereas in 1999 there were 40 students for every teacher.
Education Cont. • It is very common for students to have to walk close to 10km to get to school. • While walking many girls are attacked by rapists. • Tanzanian law states that pregnant girls must be thrown out of school and are not allowed to return. This government is currently under scrutiny by the government. • In an effort to protect girls the government and charitable organizations have opened all girls boarding schools.
Kinship • The majority of ethnic groups are patrilineal, recognizing descent through male ancestors, there are some matrilineal groups (where descent is traced through females) in Tanzania • the Kaguru in the east-central part of the country, for example.
Kinship Cont. • Traditional marriage customs vary by ethnic group. The practice of clan exogamy—or marriage outside of the clan or group—is typical, however, of almost all ethnic groups. • Traditional customs call for marriages to be arranged by the parents of the bride and groom, although such arrangements are becoming less common in modern times, particularly in urban settings. • For those wealthy enough to afford it, marriage may include a separate dowry ceremony and, several months later, a church wedding followed by traditional ceremonies. • Although many ethnic groups and Muslims allow polygyny, the practice is decreasing in popularity, in part because of the influence of Christianity and the expense of maintaining several households.
Kinship Cont. • Kinship is one of the strongest forces in traditional Tanzania, especially among the Bantus. Kinship systems provide networks for support and become visible during all major life-cycle ceremonies. Kinship is based on descent and marriage. • Marriage is only complete once the first child is born, which also is when the woman is considered fully mature. • In most ethnic groups, she is recognized by her eldest child's name and called • Example: "Mama Kyaruzi," after her eldest child of the same name.
Kinship Cont. • Bride wealth is also an important part of marriage and serves as an insurance of good behavior from the husband and wife, compensation to wife’s family for loss of her labor, payment for the cost of her upbringing, establishing legal ownership of husband over their children, and a seal to the marriage contract. • A large number of children is beneficial because it increases the immortality of the family.
Status of Women • Tanzania has existing voids between genders that have been hindering the society • The government is working towards fixing the gender imbalances and creating a better bond between men and women • As of now, “it is estimated that women especially rural women provide 80 percent of labour force in rural area and producing 60 percent of food production. Though, they are the main producers of cash crops, the environment does not allow them to own their own wealth.” –Tanzania National Website
Status of Women Cont. • Another woman problem in Tanzania is that women are not allowed to decide how many children they are going to give birth to…even though they should be in control of their bodies
Status of Women Cont. • The legal system in Tanzania does not fully protect women. One reason being that it does not reach out to rural women because of literacy issues. • “There is also discriminatory application of statutory laws, inadequate legislative protective mechanism such as protection orders, baring orders and safety orders in the legal system and insensitive investigations and prosecution of cases involving violence against women and children.” • http://www.tanzania.go.tz/gender.html
Status of Women Cont. • Some of the old customs are considered controversial to Western countries. • Examples: • Institutionalized violence against women • Property inheritance • Genital mutilation • Several statutory, religious and customary laws
Status of Women Cont. • The legal position in Tanzania is that payment of bride price is not necessary for the validity of a marriage • The Law of Marriage Act • "A marriage which in all other respects complies with the express requirements of this Act shall be valid for all purpose, notwithstanding (a) any non-compliance with any custom relating to dowry or the giving or exchanging of gifts before or after marriage.” • However, bride-price is still a common custom • The Emory Law: • Polygamy is allowed with consent of the first wife • Maintenance of wife/wives is the husband’s duty
Review Questions 1. Tanzania’s economy relies on: A. fishing B. agriculture C. manufacturing D. Information Answer: AGRICULTURE
2. What are the official languages of Tanzania? A. English and French B. Swahili and German C. German, French, and British D. Swahili and British Answer: SWAHILI AND BRITISH
3. There is much conflict in Tanzania. A. True B. False Answer: FALSE
4. How many levels of education does Tanzania have? A. Two B. Three C. Four D. Five Answer: FOUR
5. With regards to women, which custom is NOT practiced in Tanzania? A. Sterilization B. Statutory religious and customary laws C. Genital mutilation D. Institutionalized violence Answer: STERILIZATION
If we have time… • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFfxfUXmSG4 • Tanzanian Swahili Rap!